Maklumat

Apa tujuan THC untuk tanaman Ganja?


Mengapa kilang ganja menghasilkan THC? Pertanyaan ini diajukan dengan membuat analogi terhadap nikotin dalam tembakau, di mana nikotin dikembangkan oleh tanaman tembakau sebagai racun perosak. Adakah THC juga racun perosak? Saya membayangkan bahawa tanaman ganja tidak mempunyai artritis reumatoid.


Rupa-rupanya ia digunakan oleh Cannabis sativa sebagai sejenis pelindung matahari kerana menyerap cahaya UV https://www.reddit.com/r/trees/comments/2v79dv/science_sunday_13_wait_why_does_cannabis_have_thc/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrahydrocannabinol


Tetrahydrocannabinol

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) adalah penyusun psikoaktif utama ganja dan salah satu daripada sekurang-kurangnya 113 jumlah kanabinoid yang dikenal pasti di dalam tumbuhan. Walaupun formula kimia untuk THC (C21H30O2) menerangkan pelbagai isomer, [9] istilahnya THC biasanya merujuk kepada isomer Delta-9-THC dengan nama kimia (−)-trans-Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol. Seperti kebanyakan metabolit sekunder tumbuhan yang aktif secara farmakologi, THC adalah lipid yang terdapat dalam ganja, [10] yang dianggap terlibat dalam penyesuaian evolusi tanaman, yang mungkin menentang pemangsa serangga, sinar ultraviolet, dan tekanan persekitaran. [11] [12] [13]

  • AU: Tidak berjadual: ACT, Jadual 8 (Dadah Terkawal)
  • CA : Tidak berjadual
  • DE : Dronabinol: Anlage III, Δ9-THC: II, isomer lain dan varian stereokimia mereka: I. (Tidak berlaku untuk THC sebagai bahagian ganja, yang diatur secara terpisah, lihat Cannabis (ubat))
  • UK:Kelas B
  • AS:Jadual II sebagai Syndros, dan Jadual III sebagai Marinol [2]
  • 1972-08-3 Y
  • DB00470 Y
  • 15266 Y
  • CHEBI: 66964 N
  • CHEMBL465 Y
InChI = 1S / C21H30O2 / c1-5-6-7-8-15-12-18 (22) 20-16-11-14 (2) 9-10-17 (16) 21 (3,4) 23- 19 (20) 13-15 / h11-13,16-17,22H, 5-10H2,1-4H3 / t16-, 17- / m1 / s1 Y Kunci: CYQFCXCEBYINGO-IAGOWNOFSA-N Y

THC, bersama dengan isomer ikatan ganda dan stereoisomernya, [14] adalah satu daripada tiga kanabinoid yang dijadualkan oleh Konvensyen PBB mengenai Bahan Psikotropik (dua yang lain adalah dimetilheptylpyran dan paraheksil). Itu disenaraikan di bawah Jadual I pada tahun 1971, tetapi diklasifikasikan semula ke Jadual II pada tahun 1991 berikutan cadangan dari WHO. Berdasarkan kajian seterusnya, WHO telah mengesyorkan pengkelasan semula kepada Jadual III yang kurang ketat. [15] Ganja sebagai tanaman dijadualkan oleh Konvensyen Tunggal mengenai Narkotik (Jadual I dan IV). Ini secara khusus masih disenaraikan di bawah Jadual I oleh undang-undang persekutuan AS [16] di bawah Undang-Undang Bahan Terkawal kerana tidak mempunyai "penggunaan perubatan yang diterima" dan "kekurangan keselamatan yang diterima". Walau bagaimanapun, dronabinol, bentuk farmasi THC, telah disetujui oleh FDA sebagai perangsang selera bagi orang yang menghidap AIDS dan antiemetik bagi orang yang menerima kemoterapi dengan nama dagang Marinol dan Syndros. [17] Formulasi farmasi dronabinol adalah resin berminyak dan likat yang disediakan dalam kapsul yang tersedia dengan resep di Amerika Syarikat, Kanada, Jerman, dan New Zealand. [18]

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC), yang lebih dikenali oleh pengguna ganja hanya sebagai THC, adalah komponen utama tanaman ganja untuk menyebabkan kesan psikoaktif. THC pertama kali ditemui dan diasingkan oleh ahli kimia kelahiran Bulgaria Raphael Mechoulam di Israel pada tahun 1964. Didapati bahawa, ketika merokok, tetrahydrocannabinol diserap ke dalam aliran darah dan bergerak ke otak, melekat pada reseptor endocannabinoid yang berlaku secara semula jadi di korteks serebrum, cerebellum, dan ganglia basal. Ini adalah bahagian otak yang bertanggungjawab untuk berfikir, ingatan, kesenangan, koordinasi dan pergerakan. [19]


Apakah jenis ganja terbaik untuk kesakitan kronik?

Ganja perubatan adalah alternatif yang semakin popular untuk ubat penahan sakit tradisional, termasuk opioid. Ganja boleh meredakan jenis kesakitan kronik tertentu, termasuk rasa sakit akibat kerosakan saraf dan keradangan.

Hari ini, kesakitan kronik mempengaruhi lebih banyak orang daripada gabungan kanser, penyakit jantung, dan diabetes. Kesakitan kronik adalah penyebab kecacatan jangka panjang yang paling biasa di Amerika Syarikat.

Sebilangan besar produk berasaskan ganja tidak mendapat kelulusan daripada Pentadbiran Makanan dan Dadah Amerika Syarikat (FDA), dan lebih banyak bukti diperlukan untuk mengesahkan keselamatan dan keberkesanannya.

Walau bagaimanapun, bukti anekdot menunjukkan bahawa ganja atau sebatiannya dapat membantu melegakan beberapa jenis kesakitan.

Terdapat pelbagai jenis atau jenis ganja yang ada, dan masing-masing mungkin mempunyai kesan yang sedikit berbeza pada pengguna.

Dalam artikel ini, kami melihat jenis ganja terbaik untuk menghilangkan rasa sakit kronik.

Kongsi di Pinterest Marijuana dapat membantu melegakan jenis kesakitan kronik tertentu.

Pelbagai jenis tanaman ganja merangkumi yang berikut:

Terdapat kajian terhad mengenai penggunaan strain ganja tertentu untuk kesakitan dan gejala lain. Akibatnya, cadangan khusus strain tidak terbukti secara perubatan.

Hasil tinjauan dalam talian, yang terdiri daripada 95 peserta, ditampilkan dalam Jurnal Perubatan Alternatif dan Komplementari pada tahun 2014.

Para penyelidik mendapati bahawa peserta lebih suka indica tekanan untuk pengurusan kesakitan, penenang, dan tidur sementara mereka memilih sativa regangan untuk meningkatkan tenaga dan mood.

Mengenai pengurusan kesakitan, peserta melaporkan kesan yang signifikan secara statistik ketika menggunakan indica untuk:

Walau bagaimanapun, penting untuk diperhatikan bahawa kajian ini mempunyai beberapa batasan. Ini berskala kecil, tanpa nama, dan meminta orang untuk melaporkan sendiri gejala mereka. Responden tidak menggunakan ganja dalam keadaan terkawal, berpotensi mengakibatkan perbezaan komposisi, dos, dan potensi ubat.

Kajian lain mengkaji penggunaan tumbuh secara organik sativa dan indica tekanan dalam rawatan beberapa keadaan perubatan. Lebih daripada separuh peserta menggunakan ganja untuk merawat HIV.

Kajian itu mengikuti peserta selama 3 tahun dan bertanya kepada mereka mengenai kesan ubat terhadap keadaan mereka selama ini. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa indica strain cenderung meningkatkan tenaga dan selera makan, sementara kedua-duanya sativa dan indica strain dapat mengurangkan rasa mual pada tahap yang sama.

Ganja, atau ganja, mengandungi sebatian yang dapat menghilangkan rasa sakit, mual, dan gejala lain. Komponen ganja yang menjadi tumpuan kebanyakan kajian untuk menghilangkan rasa sakit adalah cannabidiol (CBD) dan tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

THC vs CBD

THC menyerupai bahan kimia cannabinoid yang berlaku secara semula jadi di dalam badan. Apabila orang menelan atau menyedut THC, ia merangsang reseptor kanabinoid otak.

Ini mengaktifkan sistem ganjaran otak dan mengurangkan tahap kesakitan. THC adalah sebatian psikoaktif kerana ia mengikat reseptor cannabinoid dan menghasilkan keadaan minda yang tinggi, yang dikenali sebagai tinggi.

CBD tidak menyebabkan tinggi, walaupun ia berinteraksi dengan reseptor kesakitan di otak untuk memberi kesan penghilang rasa sakit dan anti-radang.

Apa yang dikatakan oleh penyelidikan

Dalam beberapa tahun kebelakangan ini, banyak kajian telah melihat kesan ganja untuk kesakitan kronik. Beberapa kajian menggunakan bahagian tanaman ganja dan beberapa telah menggunakan keseluruhan tanaman sehingga diperlukan lebih banyak kajian. Menggunakan bahagian tanaman ganja (seperti minyak CBD) membantu mengkaji tindakan spesifik ramuan itu, tetapi apabila keseluruhan tanaman digunakan, inilah yang disebut kesan rombongan, di mana bahagian-bahagian itu bekerja bersama untuk memberi kesan lebih.

Tinjauan pada tahun 2015 mengenai penggunaan ganja dan cannabinoid untuk pelbagai keadaan sakit kronik melaporkan bahawa beberapa percubaan mempunyai hasil yang positif. Para penyelidik mencadangkan bahawa ganja atau kanabinoid mungkin berkesan untuk merawat beberapa jenis kesakitan kronik termasuk neuropati (sakit saraf).

Sebuah makalah penyelidikan dari tahun 2016 mendapati bahawa penggunaan ganja untuk kesakitan barah menyebabkan pengurangan penggunaan opioid sebanyak 64 peratus, peningkatan kualiti hidup, dan menyebabkan lebih sedikit kesan sampingan ubat. Ini juga menyebabkan peserta menggunakan lebih sedikit ubat.

Kajian yang lebih kecil melaporkan manfaat untuk jenis kesakitan kronik yang lain. Sebagai contoh:

  • Dari kira-kira 17,000 orang yang menghidap barah, 70 peratus dilaporkan mengalami peningkatan kesakitan dan kesejahteraan umum setelah penggunaan ganja.
  • Orang dengan migrain kronik mengalami penurunan episod migrain setelah menggunakan ubat tersebut.

Walau bagaimanapun, masih ada keperluan untuk penyelidikan lebih lanjut mengenai penggunaan ganja untuk kesakitan kronik, terutama mengenai penggunaan jenis, dos, dan kaedah penyampaian yang berlainan.

Kajian Australia, yang diterbitkan pada bulan Julai 2018, menyimpulkan bahawa penggunaan ganja tidak mengurangkan gejala kesakitan atau keperluan menggunakan ubat opioid. Walau bagaimanapun, penemuan ini berdasarkan laporan dari orang yang menggunakan ubat itu secara rekreasi.

Menggunakan ganja khusus untuk tujuan perubatan mungkin memberikan hasil yang berbeza.


Soalan Lazim

Minat penyelidikan UM merangkumi kajian sifat botani, farmakologi dan kimia tanaman ganja. Selain menyokong komuniti penyelidik melalui penyertaan UM dalam Program Bekalan Dadah Institut Nasional Penyalahgunaan Dadah (NIDA), UM bekerjasama dengan rakan industri untuk menyokong pengembangan dan pengkomersialan produk ubat yang diluluskan oleh FDA yang berasal dari ganja. Kepakaran UM dalam penyampaian ubat digunakan untuk mengembangkan formulasi yang dioptimumkan untuk penilaian pada model haiwan dan ujian klinikal manusia.

Apakah hukum Harper Grace?

Jawapan:

Mississippi Code § 41-29-136 (2017), yang dikenal sebagai Harper Grace's Law, telah diberlakukan oleh legislator Mississippi sebagai tindak balas kepada keperluan pesakit muda yang menderita keadaan epilepsi tertentu. Undang-undang ini membenarkan doktor untuk menjalankan kajian penyelidikan klinikal di Pusat Perubatan Universiti Mississippi (UMMC) menggunakan larutan oral ekstrak ganja yang diperkaya dengan kanabidiol (CBD) dan kandungan tetrahidrokannabinol (THC) yang sangat rendah. Ekstrak pekat disediakan dan disediakan oleh Pusat Penyelidikan Produk Semula Jadi Nasional (NCNPR) di University of Mississippi, dan penyelesaian oral dikeluarkan oleh Farmasi UMMC untuk tujuan percubaan penyelidikan ini. Tujuannya adalah untuk menilai keselamatan rawatan ini pada pesakit yang layak mengikuti pengajian di bawah bimbingan doktor di UMMC. Untuk kajian ini, pesakit dan keluarga mereka dibenarkan menggunakan ubat eksperimen tanpa didakwa atas pelanggaran bahan terkawal. Undang-undang ini juga membenarkan penyediaan penyelesaian CBD oleh farmasi atau makmal lain di bawah peraturan persekutuan dan negeri yang sesuai.

Undang-undang Harper Grace berakhir pada 1 Julai 2021.

Apakah perbezaan ganja dan rami?

Jawapan:

Nama saintifik Ganja sativa L. menerangkan satu spesies tumbuhan ganja yang mempunyai pelbagai jenis yang dapat dikenal pasti oleh ciri fizikal dan kimianya. Istilah "ganja" dan "rami" menggambarkan jenis yang masing-masing mempunyai tahap tetrahidrokannabinol (THC) yang tinggi dan rendah. Walaupun kedua-duanya mempunyai nilai perubatan, ganja secara tradisional telah disalahgunakan kerana kesan psikoaktifnya, sementara rami secara tradisional digunakan untuk tujuan industri seperti biji dan produk serat. Kedua-duanya telah dianggap sebagai bahan kawalan DEA Jadual-I selama beberapa dekad di AS, tetapi Rang Undang-Undang Ladang 2018 merangkumi pindaan terhadap Akta Bahan Terkawal (21 USC 812) yang menjadikan varieti rami (dengan & lt0.3% kandungan THC) tidak lagi bahan terkawal. Marijuana, bagaimanapun, tetap sebagai Jadual-I.

Bagaimana Rang Undang-Undang Ladang 2018 akan mempengaruhi kerja ganja di UM?

Jawapan:

Tujuan undang-undang ini adalah untuk mempromosikan penyelidikan dan pengkomersialan produk berasaskan rami yang sebelumnya telah dikurangkan karena penunjukan rami sebagai bahan terkawal DEA Schedule-I. Farm Bill menjelaskan definisi rami berdasarkan tahap tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) yang diukur di kilang dan produk yang berasal dari tanaman. Oleh kerana NCNPR memiliki sejarah panjang dalam memajukan penggunaan botani secara selamat dan efektif untuk aplikasi kesihatan dan perubatan, kami akan memanfaatkan prospek yang diberikan oleh undang-undang ini.

Adakah ganja mempunyai faedah perubatan?

Jawapan:

Dronabinol, bahan aktif dalam kapsul Marinol® dan setara generik yang diluluskan oleh FDA, adalah delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol sintetik (THC). THC adalah sebatian semula jadi dalam ganja. Dronabinol diluluskan sebagai produk ubat preskripsi di banyak negara untuk rawatan anoreksia yang berkaitan dengan penurunan berat badan pada pesakit dengan AIDS, serta mual dan muntah yang berkaitan dengan kemoterapi barah pada pesakit yang gagal memberi respons yang mencukupi terhadap rawatan antiemetik konvensional. Sativex®, ekstrak ganja standard yang mengandungi THC dan cannabidiol (CBD), diluluskan sebagai produk farmaseutikal untuk rawatan MS Spasticity di lebih dari 25 negara, tetapi bukan AS Epidiolex®, larutan oral yang mengandungi CBD, berada pada tahap akhir klinikal pengembangan untuk rawatan gangguan kejang tertentu. Maklumat lebih lanjut di sini.

DEA mengumumkan pada bulan Ogos 2016 bahawa ganja akan tetap menjadi ubat Jadual I yang bermaksud bahawa ia tidak ada penggunaan perubatan yang diterima di Amerika Syarikat, tetapi kekurangan penggunaan keselamatan yang diterima di bawah pengawasan perubatan dan berpotensi tinggi untuk penyalahgunaan. Keputusan ini sebagian didasarkan pada kesimpulan oleh Jabatan Kesihatan dan Perkhidmatan Manusia bahawa ganja tidak mempunyai "penggunaan perubatan yang diterima sekarang" dan tidak ada & # 8220 kajian yang mencukupi dan terkawal yang membuktikan keberkesanannya. & # 8221

Penyelidikan klinikal tambahan diperlukan untuk lebih memahami keselamatan dan keberkesanan ganja, terutama dalam bentuk asap. Untuk senarai lengkap semua projek yang dibiayai oleh Institut Kesihatan Nasional (NIH) yang meneliti kemungkinan manfaat terapi dari cannabinoid, lihat kategori Terapi Cannabinoid Terapi dalam pangkalan data NIH RePORT.

Adakah University of Mississippi satu-satunya penanam ganja sah di A.S.?

Jawapan:

Di bawah Konvensyen Tunggal Antarabangsa 1961 mengenai Dadah Narkotik dan Akta Bahan Terkawal 1970, kerajaan persekutuan adalah satu-satunya ejen yang dibenarkan untuk menyediakan ganja untuk penyelidikan. Setakat ini, DEA hanya membenarkan satu penanam, University of Mississippi, yang menanam ganja di bawah kontrak dengan Institut Nasional Penyalahgunaan Dadah. Sebagai sebahagian daripada kontrak ini, UM mengadakan pendaftaran Pengilang Pukal Jadual-I DEA untuk mengusahakan tanaman untuk tujuan ini. Walau bagaimanapun, pada tahun 2016 DEA mengumumkan tafsiran baru mengenai Konvensyen Tunggal untuk membolehkan penanam lain menanam ganja untuk membekalkan penyelidik. Sehingga Julai 2017, UM tidak menyedari ada penanam yang telah diluluskan di bawah program baru ini.

Bagaimana penanam memohon pendaftaran DEA?

Jawapan:

Lengkapkan Borang DEA 225 untuk memohon sebagai Pengeluar Ganja Jadual-I Pukal (kod ubat 7360).

Berapakah jumlah ganja yang tumbuh?

Jawapan:

UM menanam pelbagai jenis ganja yang berbeza untuk memenuhi jangkaan keperluan penyelidik di bawah kontrak National Institute on Drug Abuse. Musim penanaman luar biasa menghasilkan lebih daripada 500kg bahan tanaman, sementara musim tertutup menghasilkan sekitar 10 kg.

Mengapa ganja yang ditanam di kemudahan itu kelihatan berbeza dengan ganja di dispensari?

Jawapan:

Ganja yang dihasilkan di UM dirawat dengan ukuran partikel yang seragam kerana ia perlu diseragamkan dalam pelbagai protokol penyelidikan.

Bagaimana penyelidik boleh meminta jenis ganja lain?

Jawapan:

Penyelidik harus menghantar permintaan kepada pegawai projek Institut Nasional Program Penyediaan Dadah Penyalahgunaan Dadah: Robert Walsh, (301) 443-9825, atau Rik Kline, (301) 827-5243.

Apakah minyak CBD?

Jawapan:

Untuk tujuan program R & ampD University of Mississippi, & # 8220CBD minyak & # 8221 disebut sebagai & # 8220CBD larutan oral ekstrak. & # 8221 Ia disediakan dari ekstrak tumbuhan, yang diformulasikan untuk penggunaan farmasi, dan sesuai untuk pentadbiran lisan. Versi produk semasa mengandungi 50 mg / ml CBD, atau cannabidiol, dan tidak lebih daripada 2.5 mg / ml THC.

Produk minyak CBD UM & # 8217s disediakan dari ekstrak ganja pekat [ekstrak Cannabis yang diperkaya CBD] dengan nisbah tinggi CBD ke THC, atau tetrahydrocannabinol.

Perhatikan bahawa istilah & # 8220CBD minyak & # 8221 digunakan dengan sewenang-wenangnya oleh pemasar dan pengguna, dan mungkin merujuk kepada sisa minyak berminyak pekat, atau banyak produk turunan dengan minyak yang berbeza ditambahkan. Produk-produk ini mungkin sangat berbeza dalam kandungan, kualiti, kemurnian CBD dan kandungan cannabinoid lain.

Adakah ganja anda bebas daripada pencemaran mikrob dan logam berat?

Jawapan:

UM melakukan ujian kawalan kualiti untuk memastikan produk tersebut memenuhi standard kualiti untuk produk botani. Bakteria tertentu, seperti E coli dan Salmonella, tidak boleh diterima dalam produk yang dimaksudkan untuk pengambilan manusia. Flora semula jadi ragi dan jamur yang berlaku pada tanaman setiap spesies juga berlaku pada tanaman ganja. Tahap ragi dan acuan yang diharapkan dalam flora normal tidak begitu membimbangkan, tetapi tahap yang lebih tinggi, seperti acuan yang kelihatan, tidak dibenarkan. Ketika tumbuh-tumbuhan ganja tumbuh, logam berat di tanah sekitarnya akan tertumpu di tisu tanaman. Walaupun risiko pencemaran logam pada tanaman yang ditanam dalam keadaan terkawal sangat rendah, UM menguji sampel perwakilan untuk pencemaran logam berat.

Oleh kerana banyak negeri sekarang mempunyai undang-undang untuk membenarkan ganja perubatan, adakah program UM masih diperlukan?

Jawapan:

Ya. Membeli atau memiliki produk ganja yang tersedia di apotik negeri tetap tidak sah di peringkat persekutuan, walaupun sebilangan negeri sedang berusaha untuk memfasilitasi penyelidikan mengenai manfaat terapi ganja dan penyusunnya kanabinoid, dan beberapa telah memperuntukkan dana dari hasil cukai untuk penyelidikan. Program UM adalah satu-satunya operasi penanaman ganja yang sah secara federal, dan menyediakan bahan untuk penyelidikan yang memenuhi keperluan undang-undang dan keselamatan DEA dan FDA. Ganja yang bertujuan untuk penyelidikan saintifik mesti diseragamkan dan memenuhi syarat kualiti tertentu, yang dapat dijamin oleh UM berdasarkan prosesnya yang semakin meningkat dan kepatuhan kepada Proses Pembuatan Baik FDA. Oleh kerana institusi yang mengambil bahagian dalam program ganja perubatan yang disahkan oleh negara berisiko campur tangan persekutuan, mereka mungkin tidak layak mendapat dana penyelidikan persekutuan.

Bolehkah UM menganalisis sampel ganja penyelidik luar?

Jawapan:

Ya, tetapi hanya jika penyelidik mengekalkan pendaftaran Jadual-I DEA yang membenarkan pemindahan bahan antara pendaftar.


Adakah ganja dan kanabinoid selamat?

Beberapa kebimbangan telah dikemukakan mengenai keselamatan ganja dan kanabinoid:

  • Penggunaan ganja telah dikaitkan dengan peningkatan risiko kemalangan kenderaan bermotor.
  • Merokok ganja semasa mengandung dikaitkan dengan penurunan berat badan kelahiran.
  • Sebilangan orang yang menggunakan ganja mengalami gangguan penggunaan ganja, yang mempunyai gejala seperti keinginan, penarikan, kurang kawalan, dan kesan negatif terhadap tanggungjawab peribadi dan profesional.
  • Remaja yang menggunakan ganja adalah empat hingga tujuh kali lebih mungkin daripada orang dewasa untuk mengalami gangguan penggunaan ganja.
  • Penggunaan ganja dikaitkan dengan peningkatan risiko kecederaan pada orang dewasa yang lebih tua.
  • Penggunaan ganja, terutama penggunaan yang kerap, dikaitkan dengan risiko yang lebih tinggi untuk menghidap skizofrenia atau psikosis lain (penyakit mental yang teruk) pada orang yang terdedah kepada penyakit ini.
  • Ganja boleh menyebabkan hipotensi ortostatik (ruam kepala atau pening ketika berdiri), mungkin menimbulkan bahaya dari pengsan dan jatuh.
  • FDA telah memberi amaran kepada orang ramai untuk tidak menggunakan produk vaping yang mengandungi THC. Produk jenis ini telah terlibat dalam banyak kes kecederaan paru-paru yang serius yang berkaitan dengan vaping.
  • Terdapat banyak laporan mengenai penggunaan ganja atau produknya yang tidak disengaja oleh kanak-kanak, yang menyebabkan penyakit yang cukup parah sehingga memerlukan rawatan bilik kecemasan atau kemasukan ke hospital. Di antara sekumpulan orang yang jatuh sakit setelah terdedah kepada gula-gula yang mengandungi THC secara tidak sengaja, kanak-kanak pada umumnya mempunyai gejala yang lebih teruk daripada orang dewasa dan perlu tinggal di hospital lebih lama.
  • Beberapa pengguna jangka panjang ganja dengan dos tinggi telah mengalami keadaan yang melibatkan muntah teruk berulang.
  • Terdapat laporan mengenai pencemaran produk ganja / cannabinoid dengan mikroorganisma, racun perosak, atau bahan lain.
  • Sebilangan produk ganja / kanabinoid mengandungi jumlah kanabinoid yang jauh berbeza dari yang dinyatakan pada label mereka.

Kesan fizikal

Disebutkan dalam ramuan herba Cina sejak tahun 2700 SM, ganja telah lama dianggap berharga sebagai analgesik, anestetik, antidepresan, antibiotik, dan ubat penenang. Walaupun biasanya digunakan secara luaran (misalnya, sebagai balsem atau merokok), pada abad ke-19 kiatnya kadang-kadang diberikan secara dalaman untuk merawat gonorea dan angina pectoris.

Kesan ganja berbeza-beza, bergantung pada kekuatan dan jumlah yang digunakan, keadaan penggunaannya, dan pengalaman pengguna. Kesan psikologi cenderung mendominasi, dengan pengguna biasanya mengalami euforia ringan. Perubahan penglihatan dan pertimbangan menghasilkan penyimpangan masa dan ruang. Keracunan akut kadang-kadang boleh menyebabkan halusinasi visual, kegelisahan, kemurungan, perubahan mood yang melampau, reaksi paranoid, dan psikosis yang berlangsung selama empat hingga enam jam. Kesan fizikal ganja termasuk kemerahan mata, kekeringan mulut dan tekak, peningkatan kadar denyutan jantung yang sederhana, sesak dada (jika ubat itu merokok), mengantuk, tidak stabil, dan koordinasi otot.

Penggunaan kronik tidak mewujudkan kebergantungan fizikal, dan pengguna biasa tidak mengalami ketidakselesaan fizikal yang teruk setelah ditarik. Walau bagaimanapun, penggunaan ganja mungkin membiasakan secara psikologi. Penyelidikan menunjukkan bahawa penggunaan ganja pada masa remaja dikaitkan dengan peningkatan risiko kemurungan pada masa dewasa muda.


Fitokimia Cannabis sativa L

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa, atau rami) dan penyusunnya - khususnya kanabinoid - telah menjadi tumpuan penyelidikan kimia dan biologi yang luas selama hampir setengah abad sejak penemuan struktur kimia dari konstituen aktif utamanya, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol ( Δ 9 -THC). Kesan tingkah laku dan psikotropik tumbuhan dikaitkan dengan kandungannya dari sebatian kelas ini, kanabinoid, terutamanya Δ 9 -THC, yang dihasilkan terutamanya pada daun dan tunas bunga tumbuhan. Selain Δ 9 -THC, terdapat juga kanabinoid bukan psikoaktif dengan beberapa fungsi perubatan, seperti kanabidiol (CBD), kanabikromena (CBC), dan kanabigerol (CBG), bersama dengan konstituen bukan kanabinoid lain yang termasuk dalam pelbagai jenis produk semula jadi . Hari ini, lebih daripada 560 konstituen telah dikenal pasti dalam ganja. Penemuan baru-baru ini mengenai sifat perubatan ganja dan kanabinoid sebagai tambahan kepada potensi penggunaannya dalam rawatan sejumlah penyakit serius, seperti glaukoma, kemurungan, neuralgia, sklerosis berganda, Alzheimer, dan pengurangan gejala HIV / AIDS dan barah, telah memberi momentum kepada usaha untuk memahami lebih jauh tentang kimia, biologi, dan sifat perubatan tumbuhan ini. Sumbangan ini memberikan gambaran keseluruhan mengenai botani, aspek penanaman, dan fitokimia ganja dan unsur kimianya. Penekanan khusus diberikan pada sebatian yang baru dikenal pasti / diasingkan. Di samping itu, teknik pengasingan konstituen ganja dan kaedah analisis yang digunakan untuk analisis kualitatif dan kuantitatif ganja dan produknya juga dikaji.

Kata kunci: Kaedah analisis Biosintesis Botani Cannabis sativa Cannabinoids dari C. sativa Chemotaxonomy Definisi ganja dan cannabinoids GC / FID GC / MS HPLC HPTLC Penanaman dalaman Mikropropagasi Non-kanabinoid dari C. sativa Penanaman luaran Propagation UPLC.


Overdosis

Edibles, makanan yang mengandungi THC, telah menjadi masalah besar di negeri-negeri yang telah mengesahkan periuk kerana berlebihan.

"Adibles kadang-kadang boleh menyebabkan overdosis kerana orang sering memakan sepotong cookie dan bukannya jumlah yang didiagnosis lebih kecil," kata Raskin. "Maksud saya, siapa yang makan setengah kuki? Lebih mudah menelan kuki dan sangat menarik bagi orang muda atau mereka yang tidak mahu menghirupnya dalam bentuk asap."

Raskin juga menjelaskan bahawa kandungan makanan yang sangat tinggi, dan ketika dimakan di saluran gastrointestinal, ubat ini dapat bertahan lebih lama dan dengan intensitas yang lebih besar. "Kesan daripada menghirup THC akan berlangsung 45 minit hingga beberapa jam, tetapi makanan boleh bertahan selama enam hingga lapan jam dan lebih cenderung menyebabkan perjalanan ke ER dengan overdosis," katanya.


Kandungan

Perubatan

Ganja perubatan, atau ganja perubatan, boleh merujuk kepada penggunaan ganja dan kanabinoidnya untuk merawat penyakit atau memperbaiki gejala namun, tidak ada satu definisi yang dipersetujui. [44] [45] Kajian ilmiah mengenai ganja sebagai ubat telah terhambat oleh sekatan pengeluaran dan oleh fakta bahawa ia digolongkan sebagai ubat haram oleh banyak pemerintah. [46] Terdapat bukti terhad yang menunjukkan bahawa ganja dapat digunakan untuk mengurangi mual dan muntah semasa kemoterapi, untuk meningkatkan selera makan pada orang dengan HIV / AIDS, atau untuk merawat sakit kronik dan kekejangan otot. [47] [48] [49] Penggunaannya untuk aplikasi perubatan lain tidak mencukupi untuk membuat kesimpulan mengenai keselamatan atau keberkesanan.

Penggunaan jangka pendek meningkatkan risiko kesan buruk kecil dan besar. [48] ​​Kesan sampingan yang biasa termasuk pening, merasa letih dan muntah. [48] ​​Kesan jangka panjang ganja tidak jelas. [48] ​​Terdapat kebimbangan mengenai masalah ingatan dan kognisi, risiko ketagihan, risiko skizofrenia pada orang muda, dan risiko anak-anak mengambilnya secara tidak sengaja. [47]

Rekreasi

Ganja mempunyai kesan psikoaktif dan fisiologi semasa dimakan. [50] Kesan yang diingini segera dari memakan ganja termasuk kelonggaran dan euforia (perasaan "tinggi" atau "dilempari"), perubahan umum terhadap persepsi sedar, peningkatan kesedaran tentang sensasi, peningkatan libido [25] dan penyimpangan dalam persepsi masa dan ruang. Pada dos yang lebih tinggi, kesan boleh merangkumi perubahan imej badan, pendengaran dan / atau ilusi visual, pseudohallucination dan ataxia dari gangguan selektif refleks polysynaptic. [ rujukan diperlukan ] Dalam beberapa kes, ganja boleh menyebabkan keadaan disosiatif seperti depersonalisasi [51] [52] dan derealisasi. [53]

Beberapa kesan sampingan yang tidak diingini langsung termasuk penurunan ingatan jangka pendek, mulut kering, keterampilan motorik yang merosot dan kemerahan mata. [54] Selain perubahan subjektif dalam persepsi dan mood, kesan fizikal dan neurologi jangka pendek yang paling biasa termasuk peningkatan kadar jantung, peningkatan selera makan dan pengambilan makanan, tekanan darah rendah, penurunan ingatan jangka pendek dan bekerja, [55 ] [56] koordinasi, dan tumpuan psikomotor. Sebilangan pengguna mungkin mengalami episod psikosis akut, yang biasanya berkurang setelah enam jam, tetapi dalam kes yang jarang berlaku, pengguna berat mungkin mengalami gejala berlanjutan selama beberapa hari. [57]

Berkurangnya kualiti hidup dikaitkan dengan penggunaan ganja yang berat, walaupun hubungannya tidak konsisten dan lebih lemah daripada tembakau dan bahan lain. [58] Walau bagaimanapun, arah sebab dan akibat tidak jelas. [58]

Kerohanian

Ganja telah memegang status suci dalam beberapa agama dan telah berfungsi sebagai entheogen - bahan kimia yang digunakan dalam konteks keagamaan, perdukunan, atau kerohanian [59] - di benua India sejak zaman Veda sejak sekitar 1500 SM, tetapi mungkin sejauh ini kembali pada tahun 2000 SM. Terdapat beberapa rujukan dalam mitologi Yunani mengenai ubat kuat yang menghilangkan penderitaan dan kesedihan. Herodotus menulis mengenai amalan istiadat awal oleh orang Scythians, yang dianggap telah berlaku dari abad ke-5 hingga ke-2 SM. Dalam budaya moden, penggunaan ganja secara rohani telah disebarkan oleh murid-murid gerakan Rastafari yang menggunakan ganja sebagai sakramen dan sebagai bantuan untuk meditasi. Laporan yang paling awal diketahui mengenai status suci ganja di benua India berasal dari Atharva Veda, yang diperkirakan telah disusun sekitar tahun 1400 SM. [60]

Borang yang ada

Ganja dimakan dalam pelbagai cara, [61] semuanya melibatkan pemanasan untuk menguraikan THCA di kilang menjadi THC. [62]

    , yang biasanya melibatkan pembakaran dan penyedutan kanabinoid yang menguap ("asap") dari paip kecil, tali (versi hookah mudah alih dengan ruang air), sambungan yang dibungkus kertas atau tumpul yang dibungkus dengan daun tembakau, dan barang-barang lain. [63], yang memanaskan segala bentuk ganja hingga 165–190 ° C (329–374 ° F), [64] menyebabkan bahan aktif menguap menjadi wap tanpa membakar bahan tanaman (titik didih THC ialah 157 ° C (315 ° F) pada tekanan atmosfera). [65], yang mengandungi kepekatan THC yang agak kecil kerana THC adalah minyak (lipofilik) dan hanya sedikit larut dalam air (dengan kelarutan 2,8 mg per liter). [66] Teh ganja dibuat dengan terlebih dahulu menambahkan lemak tepu ke dalam air panas (mis. Krim atau susu apa pun kecuali skim) dengan sejumlah kecil ganja. [67], di mana ganja ditambahkan sebagai ramuan untuk salah satu dari pelbagai makanan, termasuk mentega dan makanan bakar. Di India biasanya dijadikan minuman, bhang. , biasanya mengandungi minyak ganja, dan produk makanan tambahan lain, yang mana kira-kira 220 telah diluluskan di Kanada pada tahun 2018. [68]

Jangka pendek

Kesan akut mungkin termasuk kegelisahan dan panik, gangguan perhatian dan ingatan, peningkatan risiko gejala psikotik, [b] ketidakupayaan untuk berfikir dengan jelas, dan peningkatan risiko kemalangan. [72] [73] [23] Ganja merosakkan kemampuan memandu seseorang, dan THC adalah ubat terlarang yang paling sering dijumpai dalam darah pemandu yang pernah terlibat dalam kemalangan kenderaan. Mereka yang mempunyai THC dalam sistem mereka adalah tiga hingga tujuh kali lebih mungkin menjadi penyebab kemalangan daripada mereka yang tidak menggunakan ganja atau alkohol, walaupun peranannya tidak semestinya bersebab kerana THC tinggal di aliran darah selama beberapa hari hingga beberapa minggu selepas mabuk. [74] [75] [c]

Menurut Jabatan Kesihatan dan Perkhidmatan Manusia Amerika Syarikat, terdapat 455,000 lawatan bilik kecemasan yang berkaitan dengan penggunaan ganja pada tahun 2011. Statistik ini merangkumi lawatan di mana pesakit dirawat kerana keadaan yang disebabkan oleh atau berkaitan dengan penggunaan ganja baru-baru ini. Penggunaan dadah mesti "terlibat" dalam lawatan jabatan kecemasan, tetapi tidak perlu menjadi penyebab langsung lawatan tersebut. Sebilangan besar lawatan bilik kecemasan terlarang melibatkan banyak ubat. [78] Dalam 129.000 kes, ganja adalah satu-satunya ubat yang terlibat. [79] [80]

Kesan jangka pendek ganja dapat diubah jika telah dicampur dengan ubat opioid seperti heroin atau fentanyl. [81] Ubat tambahan dimaksudkan untuk meningkatkan sifat psikoaktif, menambah bobotnya, dan meningkatkan keuntungan, walaupun terdapat bahaya bahaya overdosis. [82] [83] [d]

Jangka panjang

Pendedahan ganja jangka panjang terhadap ganja mungkin mempunyai akibat kesihatan fizikal, mental, tingkah laku dan sosial berdasarkan biologi. Ini mungkin "dikaitkan dengan penyakit hati (terutama dengan hepatitis C yang ada), paru-paru, jantung, dan pembuluh darah". [85] Mothers who used marijuana during pregnancy have children with elevated levels of depression, hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. [86] It is recommended that cannabis use be stopped before and during pregnancy as it can result in negative outcomes for both the mother and baby. [87] [88] However, maternal use of marijuana during pregnancy does not appear to be associated with low birth weight or early delivery after controlling for tobacco use and other confounding factors. [89] A 2014 review found that while cannabis use may be less harmful than alcohol use, the recommendation to substitute it for problematic drinking was premature without further study. [90] Various surveys conducted between 2015 and 2019 found that many users of cannabis substitute it for prescription drugs (including opioids), alcohol, and tobacco most of those who used it in place of alcohol or tobacco either reduced or stopped their intake of the latter substances. [91]

A limited number of studies have examined the effects of cannabis smoking on the respiratory system. [92] Chronic heavy marijuana smoking is associated with coughing, production of sputum, wheezing, and other symptoms of chronic bronchitis. [72] The available evidence does not support a causal relationship between cannabis use and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. [93] Short-term use of cannabis is associated with bronchodilation. [94] Other side effects of cannabis use include cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS). [95]

Cannabis smoke contains thousands of organic and inorganic chemical compounds. This tar is chemically similar to that found in tobacco smoke, [96] and over fifty known carcinogens have been identified in cannabis smoke, [97] including nitrosamines, reactive aldehydes, and polycylic hydrocarbons, including benz[a]pyrene. [98] Cannabis smoke is also inhaled more deeply than tobacco smoke. [99] As of 2015 [update] , there is no consensus regarding whether cannabis smoking is associated with an increased risk of cancer. [100] Light and moderate use of cannabis is not believed to increase risk of lung or upper airway cancer. Evidence for causing these cancers is mixed concerning heavy, long-term use. In general there are far lower risks of pulmonary complications for regular cannabis smokers when compared with those of tobacco. [101] A 2015 review found an association between cannabis use and the development of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), particularly non-seminoma TGCTs. [102] Another 2015 meta-analysis found no association between lifetime cannabis use and risk of head or neck cancer. [103] Combustion products are not present when using a vaporizer, consuming THC in pill form, or consuming cannabis foods. [104]

There is concern that cannabis may contribute to cardiovascular disease, [105] but as of 2018, evidence of this relationship was unclear. [106] Research in these events is complicated because cannabis is often used in conjunction with tobacco, and drugs such as alcohol and cocaine that are known to have cardiovascular risk factors. [107] Smoking cannabis has also been shown to increase the risk of myocardial infarction by 4.8 times for the 60 minutes after consumption. [108]

Neuroimaging

Although global abnormalities in white matter and grey matter are not associated with heavy cannabis use, reduced hippocampal volume is consistently found. [109] Amygdala abnormalities are sometimes reported, although findings are inconsistent. [110] [111] [112]

Cannabis use is associated with increased recruitment of task-related areas, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is thought to reflect compensatory activity due to reduced processing efficiency. [112] [111] [113] Cannabis use is also associated with downregulation of CB1 reseptor. The magnitude of down regulation is associated with cumulative cannabis exposure, and is reversed after one month of abstinence. [114] [115] [116] There is limited evidence that chronic cannabis use can reduce levels of glutamate metabolites in the human brain. [117]

Cognition

A 2015 meta-analysis found that, although a longer period of abstinence was associated with smaller magnitudes of impairment, both retrospective and prospective memory were impaired in cannabis users. The authors concluded that some, but not all, of the deficits associated with cannabis use were reversible. [118] A 2012 meta-analysis found that deficits in most domains of cognition persisted beyond the acute period of intoxication, but was not evident in studies where subjects were abstinent for more than 25 days. [119] Few high quality studies have been performed on the long-term effects of cannabis on cognition, and the results were generally inconsistent. [120] Furthermore, effect sizes of significant findings were generally small. [119] One review concluded that, although most cognitive faculties were unimpaired by cannabis use, residual deficits occurred in executive functions. [121] Impairments in executive functioning are most consistently found in older populations, which may reflect heavier cannabis exposure, or developmental effects associated with adolescent cannabis use. [122] One review found three prospective cohort studies that examined the relationship between self reported cannabis use and intelligence quotient (IQ). The study following the largest number of heavy cannabis users reported that IQ declined between ages 7–13 and age 38. Poorer school performance and increased incidence of leaving school early were both associated with cannabis use, although a causal relationship was not established. [114] Cannabis users demonstrated increased activity in task-related brain regions, consistent with reduced processing efficiency. [123]

Psychiatric

At an epidemiological level, a dose–response relationship exists between cannabis use and increased risk of psychosis [28] [124] [125] [126] and earlier onset of psychosis. [127] Although the epidemiological association is robust, evidence to prove a causal relationship is lacking. [128] But a biological causal pathway is plausible, especially if there is a genetic predisposition to mental illness, in which case cannabis may be a trigger. [129] [ sumber yang lebih baik diperlukan ]

It is not clear whether cannabis use affects the rate of suicide. [130] [131] Cannabis may also increase the risk of depression, but insufficient research has been performed to draw a conclusion. [132] [125] Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of anxiety disorders, although causality has not been established. [133]

A February 2019 review found that cannabis use during adolescence was associated with an increased risk of developing depression and suicidal behavior later in life, while finding no effect on anxiety. [134]

Reinforcement disorders

About 9% of those who experiment with marijuana eventually become dependent according to DSM-IV (1994) criteria. [80] A 2013 review estimates daily use is associated with a 10–20% rate of dependence. [47] The highest risk of cannabis dependence is found in those with a history of poor academic achievement, deviant behavior in childhood and adolescence, rebelliousness, poor parental relationships, or a parental history of drug and alcohol problems. [135] Of daily users, about 50% experience withdrawal upon cessation of use (i.e. are dependent), characterized by sleep problems, irritability, dysphoria, and craving. [114] Cannabis withdrawal is less severe than withdrawal from alcohol. [136]

According to DSM-V criteria, 9% of those who are exposed to cannabis develop cannabis use disorder, compared to 20% for cocaine, 23% for alcohol and 68% for nicotine. Cannabis use disorder in the DSM-V involves a combination of DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence, plus the addition of craving, without the criterion related to legal troubles. [114]

THC, the principal psychoactive constituent of the cannabis plant, has low toxicity. The dose of THC needed to kill 50% of tested rodents is extremely high. Cannabis has not been reported to cause fatal overdose in humans, and it would be extremely difficult to consume enough natural cannabis to cause an overdose using traditional methods like smoking it. This renders the risk of accidental overdose a practical impossibility, unless purified THC is involved. [130]

Mekanisme tindakan

The high lipid-solubility of cannabinoids results in their persisting in the body for long periods of time. [137] Even after a single administration of THC, detectable levels of THC can be found in the body for weeks or longer (depending on the amount administered and the sensitivity of the assessment method). [137] Investigators have suggested that this is an important factor in marijuana's effects, perhaps because cannabinoids may accumulate in the body, particularly in the lipid membranes of neurons. [138]

Researchers confirmed that THC exerts its most prominent effects via its actions on two types of cannabinoid receptors, the CB1 receptor and the CB2 receptor, both of which are G protein-coupled receptors. [139] The CB1 receptor is found primarily in the brain as well as in some peripheral tissues, and the CB2 receptor is found primarily in peripheral tissues, but is also expressed in neuroglial cells. [140] THC appears to alter mood and cognition through its agonist actions on the CB1 receptors, which inhibit a secondary messenger system (adenylate cyclase) in a dose-dependent manner.

Via CB1 receptor activation, THC indirectly increases dopamine release and produces psychotropic effects. [141] CBD also acts as an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors. [142] THC also potentiates the effects of the glycine receptors. [143] It is unknown if or how these actions contribute to the effects of cannabis. [144]

Detection in body fluids

THC and its major (inactive) metabolite, THC-COOH, can be measured in blood, urine, hair, oral fluid or sweat using chromatographic techniques as part of a drug use testing program or a forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal offense. [57] The concentrations obtained from such analyses can often be helpful in distinguishing active use from passive exposure, elapsed time since use, and extent or duration of use. These tests cannot, however, distinguish authorized cannabis smoking for medical purposes from unauthorized recreational smoking. [145] Commercial cannabinoid immunoassays, often employed as the initial screening method when testing physiological specimens for marijuana presence, have different degrees of cross-reactivity with THC and its metabolites. [146] Urine contains predominantly THC-COOH, while hair, oral fluid and sweat contain primarily THC. [57] Blood may contain both substances, with the relative amounts dependent on the recency and extent of usage. [57]

The Duquenois–Levine test is commonly used as a screening test in the field, but it cannot definitively confirm the presence of cannabis, as a large range of substances have been shown to give false positives. [147] Researchers at John Jay College of Criminal Justice reported that dietary zinc supplements can mask the presence of THC and other drugs in urine. [148] However, a 2013 study conducted by researchers at the University of Utah School of Medicine refute the possibility of self-administered zinc producing false-negative urine drug tests. [149]

CBD is a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, which is under laboratory research to determine if it has an anxiolytic effect. [150] It is often claimed that sativa strains provide a more stimulating psychoactive high while indica strains are more sedating with a body high. [151] However, this is disputed by researchers. [152]

Psychoactive ingredients

According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), "the amount of THC present in a cannabis sample is generally used as a measure of cannabis potency." [153] The three main forms of cannabis products are the flower/fruit, resin (hashish), and oil (hash oil). The UNODC states that cannabis often contains 5% THC content, resin "can contain up to 20% THC content", and that "Cannabis oil may contain more than 60% THC content." [153]

A 2012 review found that the THC content in marijuana had increased worldwide from 1970 to 2009. [154] It is unclear, however, whether the increase in THC content has caused people to consume more THC or if users adjust based on the potency of the cannabis. It is likely that the higher THC content allows people to ingest less tar. At the same time, CBD levels in seized samples have lowered, in part because of the desire to produce higher THC levels and because more illegal growers cultivate indoors using artificial lights. This helps avoid detection but reduces the CBD production of the plant. [155]

Australia's National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre (NCPIC) states that the buds (infructescences) of the female cannabis plant contain the highest concentration of THC, followed by the leaves. The stalks and seeds have "much lower THC levels". [156] The UN states that the leaves can contain ten times less THC than the buds, and the stalks one hundred times less THC. [153]

After revisions to cannabis scheduling in the UK, the government moved cannabis back from a class C to a class B drug. A purported reason was the appearance of high potency cannabis. They believe skunk accounts for between 70 and 80% of samples seized by police [157] (despite the fact that skunk can sometimes be incorrectly mistaken for all types of herbal cannabis). [158] [159] Extracts such as hashish and hash oil typically contain more THC than high potency cannabis infructescences. [160]

Laced cannabis

Hemp buds (or low-potency cannabis buds) laced with synthetic cannabinoids started to be sold as cannabis street drug in 2020. [161] [162] [163] [164]

Dried flower buds (marijuana)

Marijuana

Marijuana or marihuana (herbal cannabis) [20] consists of the dried flowers and fruits and subtending leaves and stems of the female Cannabis plant. [165] [166] [167] [168] This is the most widely consumed form, [168] containing 3% to 20% THC, [169] with reports of up to 33% THC. [170] This is the stock material from which all other preparations are derived. Although herbal cannabis and industrial hemp derive from the same species and contain the psychoactive component (THC), they are distinct strains with unique biochemical compositions and uses. Hemp has lower concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of CBD, which gives lesser psychoactive effects. [171] [172]

Kief is a powder, rich in trichomes, [173] which can be sifted from the leaves, flowers and fruits of cannabis plants and either consumed in powder form or compressed to produce cakes of hashish. [174] The word "kif" derives from colloquial Arabic كيف kēf / kīf, meaning keseronokan. [175]

Hashish

Hashish (also spelled hasheesh, hashisha, or simply hash) is a concentrated resin cake or ball produced from pressed kief, the detached trichomes and fine material that falls off cannabis fruits, flowers and leaves. [176] or from scraping the resin from the surface of the plants and rolling it into balls. It varies in color from black to golden brown depending upon purity and variety of cultivar it was obtained from. [177] It can be consumed orally or smoked, and is also vaporized, or 'vaped'. [178] The term "rosin hash" refers to a high quality solventless product obtained through heat and pressure. [179]

Tincture

Cannabinoids can be extracted from cannabis plant matter using high-proof spirits (often grain alcohol) to create a tincture, often referred to as "green dragon". [180] Nabiximols is a branded product name from a tincture manufacturing pharmaceutical company. [181]

Hash oil

Hash oil is a resinous matrix of cannabinoids obtained from the Cannabis plant by solvent extraction, [182] formed into a hardened or viscous mass. [183] Hash oil can be the most potent of the main cannabis products because of its high level of psychoactive compound per its volume, which can vary depending on the plant's mix of essential oils and psychoactive compounds. [184] Butane and supercritical carbon dioxide hash oil have become popular in recent years. [185]

Infusions

There are many varieties of cannabis infusions owing to the variety of non-volatile solvents used. [186] The plant material is mixed with the solvent and then pressed and filtered to express the oils of the plant into the solvent. Examples of solvents used in this process are cocoa butter, dairy butter, cooking oil, glycerine, and skin moisturizers. Depending on the solvent, these may be used in cannabis foods or applied topically. [187]

Medical use

Medical marijuana refers to the use of the Cannabis plant as a physician-recommended herbal therapy as well as synthetic [188] THC and cannabinoids. So far, the medical use of cannabis is legal only in a limited number of territories, including Canada, [68] Belgium, Australia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, [189] Spain, and many U.S. states. This usage generally requires a prescription, and distribution is usually done within a framework defined by local laws. There is evidence supporting the use of cannabis or its derivatives in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, neuropathic pain, and multiple sclerosis. Lower levels of evidence support its use for AIDS wasting syndrome, epilepsy, rheumatoid arthritis, and glaucoma. [80]

Ancient history

Cannabis is indigenous to Central Asia [190] and the Indian subcontinent, [191] and its uses for fabric and rope dates back to the Neolithic age in China and Japan. [192] [193] It is unclear when cannabis first became known for its psychoactive properties. The oldest archeological evidence for the burning of cannabis was found in Romanian kurgans dated 3,500 BC, and scholars suggest that the drug was first used in ritual ceremonies by Proto-Indo-European tribes living in the Pontic-Caspian steppe during the Chalcolithic period, a custom they eventually spread throughout western Eurasia during the Indo-European migrations. [194] [195] Some research suggests that the ancient Indo-Iranian drug soma, mentioned in the Vedas, sometimes contained cannabis. This is based on the discovery of a basin containing cannabis in a shrine of the second millennium BC in Turkmenistan. [196]

Cannabis was known to the ancient Assyrians, who discovered its psychoactive properties through the Iranians. [197] Using it in some religious ceremonies, they called it qunubu (meaning "way to produce smoke"), a probable origin of the modern word "cannabis". [198] The Iranians also introduced cannabis to the Scythians, Thracians and Dacians, whose shamans (the kapnobatai—"those who walk on smoke/clouds") burned cannabis infructescences to induce trance. [199] The plant was used in China before 2800 BC, and found therapeutic use in India by 1000 BC, where it was used in food and drink, including bhang. [200] [201]

Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual use and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. The earliest evidence of cannabis smoking has been found in the 2,500-year-old tombs of Jirzankal Cemetery in the Pamir Mountains in Western China, where cannabis residue were found in burners with charred pebbles possibly used during funeral rituals. [202] [37] Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early ceremonial practices like eating by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd century BC, confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus. [203] It was used by Muslims in various Sufi orders as early as the Mamluk period, for example by the Qalandars. [204] Smoking pipes uncovered in Ethiopia and carbon-dated to around c. AD 1320 were found to have traces of cannabis. [205]

Modern history

Following an 1836–1840 travel in North Africa and the Middle East, French physician Jacques-Joseph Moreau wrote on the psychological effects of cannabis use he was a member of Paris' Club des Hashischins. [ rujukan diperlukan ] In 1842, Irish physician William Brooke O'Shaughnessy, who had studied the drug while working as a medical officer in Bengal with the East India Company, brought a quantity of cannabis with him on his return to Britain, provoking renewed interest in the West. [206] Examples of classic literature of the period featuring cannabis include Les paradis artificiels (1860) by Charles Baudelaire and The Hasheesh Eater (1857) by Fitz Hugh Ludlow.

Cannabis was criminalized in various countries beginning in the 19th century. The colonial government of Mauritius banned cannabis in 1840 over concerns on its effect on Indian indentured workers [207] the same occurred in Singapore in 1870. [208] In the United States, the first restrictions on sale of cannabis came in 1906 (in the District of Columbia). [209] Canada criminalized cannabis in The Opium and Narcotic Drug Act, 1923, [210] before any reports of the use of the drug in Canada, but eventually legalized its consumption for recreational and medicinal purposes in 2018. [68]

In 1925, a compromise was made at an international conference in The Hague about the International Opium Convention that banned exportation of "Indian hemp" to countries that had prohibited its use, and requiring importing countries to issue certificates approving the importation and stating that the shipment was required "exclusively for medical or scientific purposes". It also required parties to "exercise an effective control of such a nature as to prevent the illicit international traffic in Indian hemp and especially in the resin". [211] [212] In the United States in 1937, the Marihuana Tax Act was passed, [213] and prohibited the production of hemp in addition to cannabis.

In 1972, the Dutch government divided drugs into more- and less-dangerous categories, with cannabis being in the lesser category. Accordingly, possession of 30 grams (1.1 oz) or less was made a misdemeanor. [214] Cannabis has been available for recreational use in coffee shops since 1976. [215] Cannabis products are only sold openly in certain local "coffeeshops" and possession of up to 5 grams (0.18 oz) for personal use is decriminalized, however: the police may still confiscate it, which often happens in car checks near the border. Other types of sales and transportation are not permitted, although the general approach toward cannabis was lenient even before official decriminalization. [216] [217] [218]

In Uruguay, President Jose Mujica signed legislation to legalize recreational cannabis in December 2013, making Uruguay the first country in the modern era to legalize cannabis. In August 2014, Uruguay legalized growing up to six plants at home, as well as the formation of growing clubs, and a state-controlled marijuana dispensary regime.

As of 17 October 2018 when recreational use of cannabis was legalized in Canada, dietary supplements for human use and veterinary health products containing not more than 10 parts per million of THC extract were approved for marketing Nabiximols (as Sativex) is used as a prescription drug in Canada. [68]

The United Nations' World Drug Report stated that cannabis "was the world's most widely produced, trafficked, and consumed drug in the world in 2010", and estimated between 128 million and 238 million users globally in 2015. [219] [220]

The main component of cannabis is THC formed from decarboxylation of THCA. Raw leaf is not psychoactive because cannabinoids are in the form of carboxylic acids. The major cannabinoid acids of raw cannabis are THCA, CBGA, CBDA, CBCA, CBGVA, THCVA, CBDVA, CBCVA. They are precursors to cannabinoids. On decarboxylation the following major cannabinoids THC, CBD, CBC, CBCV, CBDV, CBGV, THCV are formed. On more degradation CBN is formed. [221] Cannabis is rich in terpenes too. The most common terpenes in cannabis are myrcene, limonene, caryophyllene, terpinolene, pinene, humulene, ocimene and linalool. [222]

Legal status

Since the beginning of the 20th century, most countries have enacted laws against the cultivation, possession or transfer of cannabis. [223] These laws have had an adverse effect on cannabis cultivation for non-recreational purposes, but there are many regions where handling of cannabis is legal or licensed. Many jurisdictions have lessened the penalties for possession of small quantities of cannabis so that it is punished by confiscation and sometimes a fine, rather than imprisonment, focusing more on those who traffic the drug on the black market.

In some areas where cannabis use had been historically tolerated, new restrictions were instituted, such as the closing of cannabis coffee shops near the borders of the Netherlands, [224] and closing of coffee shops near secondary schools in the Netherlands. [225] In Copenhagen, Denmark in 2014, mayor Frank Jensen discussed possibilities for the city to legalize cannabis production and commerce. [226]

Some jurisdictions use free voluntary treatment programs and/or mandatory treatment programs for frequent known users. Simple possession can carry long prison terms in some countries, particularly in East Asia, where the sale of cannabis may lead to a sentence of life in prison or even execution. Political parties, non-profit organizations, and causes based on the legalization of medical cannabis and/or legalizing the plant entirely (with some restrictions) have emerged in such countries as China and Thailand. [227] [228]

In December 2012, the U.S. state of Washington became the first state to officially legalize cannabis in a state law (Washington Initiative 502) (but still illegal by federal law), [229] with the state of Colorado following close behind (Colorado Amendment 64). [230] On 1 January 2013, the first marijuana "club" for private marijuana smoking (no buying or selling, however) was allowed for the first time in Colorado. [231] The California Supreme Court decided in May 2013 that local governments can ban medical marijuana dispensaries despite a state law in California that permits the use of cannabis for medical purposes. At least 180 cities across California have enacted bans in recent years. [232]

In December 2013, Uruguay became the first country to legalize growing, sale and use of cannabis. [233] After a long delay in implementing the retail component of the law, in 2017 sixteen pharmacies were authorized to sell cannabis commercially. [234] On 19 June 2018, the Canadian Senate passed a bill and the Prime Minister announced the effective legalization date as 17 October 2018. [68] [235] Canada is the second country to legalize the drug. [236]

In November 2015, Uttarakhand became the first state of India to legalize the cultivation of hemp for industrial purposes. [237] Usage within the Hindu and Buddhist cultures of the Indian subcontinent is common, with many street vendors in India openly selling products infused with cannabis, and traditional medical practitioners in Sri Lanka selling products infused with cannabis for recreational purposes and well as for religious celebrations. [238] Indian laws criminalizing cannabis date back to the colonial period. India and Sri Lanka have allowed cannabis to be taken in the context of traditional culture for recreational/celebratory purposes and also for medicinal purposes. [238]

On 17 October 2015, Australian health minister Sussan Ley presented a new law that will allow the cultivation of cannabis for scientific research and medical trials on patients. [239]

On 17 October 2018, Canada legalized cannabis for recreational adult use [240] making it the second country in the world to do so after Uruguay and the first G7 nation. [241] The Canadian Licensed Producer system aims to become the Gold Standard in the world for safe and secure cannabis production, [242] including provisions for a robust craft cannabis industry where many expect opportunities for experimenting with different strains. [243] Laws around use vary from province to province including age limits, retail structure, and growing at home. [240]

As the drug has increasingly been seen as a health issue instead of criminal behavior, marijuana has also been legalized or decriminalized in: Czech Republic, [244] Colombia, [245] [246] Ecuador, [247] [248] [249] Portugal, [250] South Africa [251] and Canada. [68] Medical marijuana was legalized in Mexico in mid-2017 legislators plan to legalize its recreational use by late 2019. [252] [253] [254]

Penggunaan

Global estimates of drug users in 2016
(in millions of users) [255]
Bahan Best
estimate
Rendah
estimate
Tinggi
estimate
Amphetamine-
type stimulants
34.16 13.42 55.24
Cannabis 192.15 165.76 234.06
Kokain 18.20 13.87 22.85
Ecstasy 20.57 8.99 32.34
Opiates 19.38 13.80 26.15
Opioid 34.26 27.01 44.54

In 2013, between 128 and 232 million people used cannabis (2.7% to 4.9% of the global population between the ages of 15 and 65). [34] Cannabis is by far the most widely used illicit substance. [256]

United States

Between 1973 and 1978, eleven states decriminalized marijuana. [257] In 2001, Nevada reduced marijuana possession to a misdemeanor and since 2012, several other states have decriminalized and even legalized marijuana. [257]

In 2018, almost half of the people in the United States had tried marijuana, 16% had used it in the past year, and 11% had used it in the past month. [258] In 2014, daily marijuana use amongst US college students had reached its highest level since records began in 1980, rising from 3.5% in 2007 to 5.9% in 2014 and had surpassed daily cigarette use. [259]

In the US, men are over twice as likely to use marijuana as women, and 18–29-year-olds are six times more likely to use as over-65-year-olds. [260] In 2015, a record 44% of the US population has tried marijuana in their lifetime, an increase from 38% in 2013 and 33% in 1985. [260]

Marijuana use in the United States is three times above the global average, but in line with other Western democracies. Forty-four percent of American 12th graders have tried the drug at least once, and the typical age of first-use is 16, similar to the typical age of first-use for alcohol but lower than the first-use age for other illicit drugs. [256]

Economics

Pengeluaran

Sinsemilla (Spanish for "without seed") is the dried, seedless (i.e. parthenocarpic) infructescences of female cannabis plants. Because THC production drops off once pollination occurs, the male plants (which produce little THC themselves) are eliminated before they shed pollen to prevent pollination, thus inducing the development of parthenocarpic fruits gathered in dense infructescences. Advanced cultivation techniques such as hydroponics, cloning, high-intensity artificial lighting, and the sea of green method are frequently employed as a response (in part) to prohibition enforcement efforts that make outdoor cultivation more risky.

"Skunk" refers to several named strains of potent cannabis, grown through selective breeding and sometimes hydroponics. It is a cross-breed of Ganja sativa dan C. indica (although other strains of this mix exist in abundance). Skunk cannabis potency ranges usually from 6% to 15% and rarely as high as 20%. The average THC level in coffee shops in the Netherlands is about 18–19%. [261]

The average levels of THC in cannabis sold in the United States rose dramatically between the 1970s and 2000. [262] This is disputed for various reasons, and there is little consensus as to whether this is a fact or an artifact of poor testing methodologies. [262] According to Daniel Forbes writing for slate.com, the relative strength of modern strains are likely skewed because undue weight is given to much more expensive and potent, but less prevalent, samples. [263] Some suggest that results are skewed by older testing methods that included low-THC-content plant material such as leaves in the samples, which are excluded in contemporary tests. Others believe that modern strains actually are significantly more potent than older ones. [262]

Harga

The price or street value of cannabis varies widely depending on geographic area and potency. [264] Prices and overall markets have also varied considerably over time.

    In 1997, cannabis was estimated to be overall the number four value crop in the US, and number one or two in many states, including California, New York, and Florida. This estimate is based on a value to growers of

After some U.S. states legalized cannabis, street prices began to drop. In Colorado, the price of smokable buds (infructescences) dropped 40 percent between 2014 and 2019, from $200 per ounce to $120 per ounce ($7 per gram to $4.19 per gram). [269]

The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction reports that typical retail prices in Europe for cannabis varied from €2 to €20 per gram in 2008, with a majority of European countries reporting prices in the range €4–10. [270]

Gateway drug

The gateway hypothesis states that cannabis use increases the probability of trying "harder" drugs. The hypothesis has been hotly debated as it is regarded by some as the primary rationale for the United States prohibition on cannabis use. [271] [272] A Pew Research Center poll found that political opposition to marijuana use was significantly associated with concerns about the health effects and whether legalization would increase marijuana use by children. [273]

Some studies state that while there is no proof for the gateway hypothesis, [274] young cannabis users should still be considered as a risk group for intervention programs. [275] Other findings indicate that hard drug users are likely to be poly-drug users, and that interventions must address the use of multiple drugs instead of a single hard drug. [276] Almost two-thirds of the poly drug users in the 2009-2010 Scottish Crime and Justice Survey used cannabis. [277]

The gateway effect may appear due to social factors involved in using any illegal drug. Because of the illegal status of cannabis, its consumers are likely to find themselves in situations allowing them to acquaint with individuals using or selling other illegal drugs. [278] [279] Studies have shown that alcohol and tobacco may additionally be regarded as gateway drugs [280] however, a more parsimonious explanation could be that cannabis is simply more readily available (and at an earlier age) than illegal hard drugs. In turn, alcohol and tobacco are typically easier to obtain at an earlier age than is cannabis (though the reverse may be true in some areas), thus leading to the "gateway sequence" in those individuals, since they are most likely to experiment with any drug offered. [271]

A related alternative to the gateway hypothesis is the common liability to addiction (CLA) theory. It states that some individuals are, for various reasons, willing to try multiple recreational substances. The "gateway" drugs are merely those that are (usually) available at an earlier age than the harder drugs. Researchers have noted in an extensive review that it is dangerous to present the sequence of events described in gateway "theory" in causative terms as this hinders both research and intervention. [281]

In 2020, the National Institute on Drug Abuse released a study backing allegations that marijuana is a gateway to harder drugs, though not for the majority of marijuana users. [282] The National Institute on Drug Abuse determined that marijuana use is "likely to precede use of other licit and illicit substances" and that "adults who reported marijuana use during the first wave of the survey were more likely than adults who did not use marijuana to develop an alcohol use disorder within 3 years people who used marijuana and already had an alcohol use disorder at the outset were at greater risk of their alcohol use disorder worsening. Marijuana use is also linked to other substance use disorders including nicotine addiction." [282] It also reported that "These findings are consistent with the idea of marijuana as a "gateway drug." However, the majority of people who use marijuana do not go on to use other, "harder" substances. Also, cross-sensitization is not unique to marijuana. Alcohol and nicotine also prime the brain for a heightened response to other drugs and are, like marijuana, also typically used before a person progresses to other, more harmful substances." [282]

Cannabis research is challenging since the plant is illegal in most countries. [283] [284] [285] [286] [287] Research-grade samples of the drug are difficult to obtain for research purposes, unless granted under authority of national regulatory agencies, such as the US Food and Drug Administration. [288]

There are also other difficulties in researching the effects of cannabis. Many people who smoke cannabis also smoke tobacco. [289] This causes confounding factors, where questions arise as to whether the tobacco, the cannabis, or both that have caused a cancer. Another difficulty researchers have is in recruiting people who smoke cannabis into studies. Because cannabis is an illegal drug in many countries, people may be reluctant to take part in research, and if they do agree to take part, they may not say how much cannabis they actually smoke. [290]

A 2015 review found that the use of high CBD-to-THC strains of cannabis showed significantly fewer positive symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations, better cognitive function and both lower risk for developing psychosis, as well as a later age of onset of the illness, compared to cannabis with low CBD-to-THC ratios. [291] Reviews in 2019 found that research was insufficient to determine the safety and efficacy of using cannabis to treat schizophrenia, psychosis, or other mental disorders. [292] [293] There is preliminary evidence that cannabis interferes with the anticoagulant properties of prescription drugs used for treating blood clots. [294] As of 2019 [update] , the mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory and possible pain relieving effects of cannabis were not defined, and there were no governmental regulatory approvals or clinical practices for use of cannabis as a drug. [293]

Currently, Uruguay and Canada are the only countries that have fully legalized the consumption and sale of recreational cannabis nationwide. [295] [296] In the United States, 18 states, 2 territories, and the District of Columbia have legalized the recreational use of cannabis – though the drug remains illegal at the federal level. [42] Laws vary from state to state when it comes to the commercial sale. Court rulings in Georgia and South Africa have led to the legalization of cannabis consumption, but not legal sales. A policy of limited enforcement has also been adopted in many countries, in particular Spain and the Netherlands where the sale of cannabis is tolerated at licensed establishments. [297] [298] Contrary to popular belief, cannabis is not legal in the Netherlands [299] but it has been decriminalized since the 1970s. Lebanon has recently become the first Arab country to legalize the plantation of cannabis for medical use. [300]

Penalties for illegal recreational use ranges from confiscation or small fines to jail time and even death. [301] In some countries citizens can be punished if they have used the drug in another country, including Singapore and South Korea. [302] [303]


Tying It All Together When it Comes to Trichomes

So trichomes are the gooey, sticky resin that you get on your ganja. This sticky resin protects the plants from insects, animals, and the sun while it grows.

You want to try to consume as much of the trichomes as possible since this is where all of the plant’s medicinal and recreational compounds (such as THC, CBD, and terpenes) grow within the heads of the trichome glands.

You can separate the trichomes from the ganja using butane (but only if you happen to be a certified professional BHO maker), ice water extraction, or a common three-chambered grinder once you see the trichome gland heads start to turn opaque.

Additionally, you can choose to taste your trichomes by vaping, dabbing, taking a tincture, or by simply smoking them—so enjoy!


Tonton videonya: Документальный фильм - Божественное растение (Disember 2021).