Maklumat

Apakah mod makanan?


Saya telah menonton sebuah Pemburu Buaya episod mengenai komodo, dan Steve Irwin terus berbicara mengenai haiwan yang berada dalam "mod makanan", di mana mereka nampaknya mengubah tingkah laku mereka menjadi salah satu mesin pembunuh. Dia mengatakan jika kulit pohon jatuh ketika mereka berada dalam mod makanan, mereka akan menangkapnya.

Adakah ia nyata? Saya googled "food mode" tetapi tidak ada yang menarik muncul. Haiwan mana yang mempunyai mod makanan seperti ini? Adakah ia terhad kepada reptilia? Adakah ia mempunyai nama saintifik? Bolehkah saya membacanya di suatu tempat?


Saya mengesyaki dia hanya bermaksud "ketika mereka lapar" dan mungkin mempermainkannya untuk TV.

Menurut Kebun Binatang San Diego, mereka hanya makan sekitar sebulan sekali, dan menghabiskan beberapa hari untuk mencerna mangsanya.

  • Orang dewasa menghabiskan purata 26 hari untuk mencari mangsa. 10-20 minit makan. (Seorang wanita 50 kg diperhatikan menelan babi babi 31 kg dalam 17 minit). 3-6 hari dihabiskan dalam jeda pencernaan.
  • Kadar pengingesan mungkin sebanyak 2.5 kg / min - lebih tinggi daripada pemangsa lain kecuali ular besar.
  • Kecekapan pencernaan yang tinggi (70-90%) Waktu bergantung pada suhu (kira-kira 26 jam pada suhu badan normal) Malam yang sejuk boleh berlengah hingga hampir 5 hari. Tekanan boleh melambatkan atau bahkan menghentikan pencernaan (buang air besar mangsa yang dicerna sebahagiannya mungkin berlaku)

http://library.sandiegozoo.org/factsheets/komodo_dragon/komodo.htm


Keselamatan Makanan, Pemakanan dan Kesihatan

Sinopsis

Pendidikan pemakanan mempunyai visi luas yang merangkumi strategi pendidikan dan sokongan lingkungan untuk mendorong penggunaan pilihan makanan dan pola makan yang lebih sihat dan lestari. Ini melampaui pemberian maklumat untuk memupuk pemikiran kritis, perubahan sikap dan kemahiran praktikal, serta tindakan bersepadu untuk memfasilitasi dan memungkinkan tingkah laku dan persekitaran makanan yang kondusif untuk kesihatan. Pendidikan pemakanan berlaku dalam pelbagai tetapan, menyasarkan kumpulan penduduk yang berlainan dan menggunakan pelbagai saluran, alat dan bahan. Mengamalkan pendekatan berdasarkan bukti dan berdasarkan teori meningkatkan keberkesanan dalam mencapai hasil yang diharapkan. Sejumlah kecekapan pengetahuan dan kemahiran asas telah dikenal pasti untuk pendidik pemakanan yang terlatih dan berkesan.


5 bidang sains makanan

Seorang saintis makanan boleh memainkan banyak peranan dalam perkhidmatan makanan, termasuk menu R&D. Berikut adalah lebih dekat beberapa bidang kepakaran saintis makanan.

1. Mikrobiologi Makanan

Pada dasarnya kajian bagaimana mikroorganisma berinteraksi dengan makanan, mikrobiologi makanan memberi tumpuan kepada bakteria, jamur, ragi dan virus. Kawasan yang sangat penting untuk pembangunan produk adalah keselamatan dan kualiti makanan. Keselamatan makanan menangani pencegahan patogen dalam makanan. Hampir mustahil untuk menghilangkan mikroorganisma dari makanan apa pun, tetapi banyak langkah dapat diambil untuk memperlambat pertumbuhannya atau mematikannya. Apa yang dilakukan sains makanan dalam cara keselamatan makanan adalah mengembangkan teknik yang sangat sensitif dan pantas untuk mengenal pasti mikroorganisma patogen dan toksin yang mereka hasilkan dalam makanan, dan mengembangkan pembungkusan dan proses yang menghalang pertumbuhannya dan mengurangkan kadar kelangsungan hidup mereka. Tidak semua mikroorganisma berbahaya, tetapi ada yang menyebabkan kerosakan makanan.

Kunci untuk mengawal kerosakan adalah membunuh bakteria sebanyak mungkin tanpa membunuh kualiti makanan di mana mereka tinggal. Mikrobiologi makanan adalah salah satu bidang sains makanan yang paling penting dalam hal pengembangan produk, terutama pada zaman litigasi ini. Semasa merangka rancangan pengembangan untuk produk baru, penting untuk mempertimbangkan kualiti mikroba setiap komponen dan bagaimana hal itu dapat mempengaruhi kualiti keseluruhan produk — dan untuk menentukan bagaimana memproses produk sehingga mempunyai jangka hayat yang mencukupi.

2. Kejuruteraan & Pemprosesan Makanan

Sejauh pembangun produk pergi, jurutera makanan mengembangkan konsep yang digunakan pemproses untuk mengubah bahan mentah menjadi makanan yang selamat dan tahan lama. Dalam pengembangan menu, jurutera mungkin tidak memainkan peranan langsung, tetapi pemproses akan melakukannya. Bagaimana ramuan diproses boleh memberi kesan dramatik pada rasa, warna, keselamatan dan jangka hayat makanan. Pertimbangkan pemprosesan tekanan tinggi (HPP) dan kesannya terhadap industri jus buah dan sayur segar. HPP adalah proses non-termal atau "pasteurisasi sejuk" yang dikembangkan untuk membolehkan jus buah dan sayur dihasilkan tanpa kesan buruk dari rawatan termal, seperti perubahan rasa, tekstur atau warna. Profil pemakanan jus tidak berubah oleh prosesnya, jadi pembentukkan tidak diperlukan.

Produk semulajadi, sihat dan beraroma dapat dihasilkan berkat jurutera pemprosesan makanan. HPP juga dapat digunakan untuk memproses kerang mentah, memusnahkan bakteria yang berpotensi berbahaya. Fikirkan potensi dalam rangkaian restoran makanan laut. Kerang, bahkan tiram dapat tetap hidup sehingga pelanggan memerintahkan mereka meletakkan kerang / tiram ke dalam HPP dan dalam satu minit mereka dihancurkan dan dibersihkan dari mikroorganisma yang berpotensi berbahaya.

3. Kimia Makanan & Biokimia

Semua makanan adalah biokimia kerana dalam kebanyakan kes makanan atau bahan mentahnya adalah atau merupakan makhluk hidup. Memahami biokimia boleh menjadi sangat penting bagi pembangun produk. Ikuti aktiviti enzim. Menambah enzim laktase ke dalam susu memotong laktosa disakarida menjadi komponennya galaktosa dan glukosa, menjadikannya lebih mudah dicerna. Ini membuka keseluruhan spektrum produk untuk tidak bertoleransi laktosa. Tetapi enzim mempunyai aktiviti yang optimum pada pH dan suhu tertentu — ia tidak akan bertahan dalam jenis pemprosesan tertentu. Landasan dalam biokimia memberikan pengetahuan untuk mengembangkan produk yang memanfaatkan sebatian tersebut.

4. Pemakanan

Cabaran utama bagi pembangun produk dan menu adalah menyediakan makanan beraroma yang mengandungi lebih sedikit kalori tetapi tetap memuaskan pelanggan. Para saintis makanan memberi tumpuan utama untuk mengenal pasti dan mencirikan kesan biologi yang disebut nutraseutikal dan makanan berfungsi. Pembangun produk menggunakan penyelidikan ini dan berusaha memasukkan makanan ini atau sebatian bioaktif khusus mereka ke dalam produk baru. Pengguna juga menjadi berpendidikan di daerah ini, dan akhirnya akan mengharapkan manfaat kesihatan yang sama dari makanan di rumah yang mereka dapatkan dari rumah.

Fortifikasi adalah topik lain yang mesti dipertimbangkan oleh pembangun produk. "Campuran vitamin" yang biasa ditambahkan pada produk runcit adalah mahal dan sangat tidak stabil. Titik di mana ia ditambahkan semasa proses pembuatan akan mempengaruhi konsentrasi aktif akhir mereka. Kesan pemprosesan, penyimpanan dan penyediaan terhadap kualiti pemakanan makanan juga penting. Teknologis makanan dapat mengembangkan proses HPP yang mengekalkan kandungan vitamin A semula jadi dalam, katakanlah, haluskan alpukat. Tetapi jika produk yang dihasilkan dimasukkan ke dalam item menu yang berada di meja stim untuk jangka masa yang panjang, kemungkinan proses novel akan hilang.

Pakar pemakanan biasanya mengaitkan pemprosesan terma dengan kesan buruk terhadap kualiti pemakanan makanan, tetapi tidak selalu. Hasil kerja terbaru di Universiti Cornell menunjukkan bahawa memanaskan tomato meningkatkan tahap fitokimia yang melawan barah yang disebut lycopene.

5. Analisis Deria

Ilmu sensori menggunakan orang untuk menggambarkan dan menilai rasa, tekstur, penampilan dan sifat makanan yang lain. Amalan penilaian sensori penting untuk pembangun produk. Teknik deria dapat digunakan untuk mempersempit konsep dan memilih protocept, mengoptimumkan produk yang sedang berkembang dan memantau dan mengawal kualiti produk jadi. Ujian pengguna boleh digunakan untuk menilai pilihan dan penerimaan produk. Produk dapat dinilai dan dioptimumkan menggunakan analisis deskriptif kuantitatif (QDA), di mana kumpulan fokus menentukan atribut deria untuk produk dan menetapkan skor berangka untuk atribut ini. Menentukan pengukuran yang sesuai adalah sangat penting, kerana ia membolehkan hasil deria dihitung. Inilah inti pati sains deria: mengubah persepsi manusia terhadap makanan menjadi hasil yang dapat diukur.


Apa itu Sains Makanan?

Makanan Sains adalah nama yang mudah digunakan untuk menerangkan penerapan prinsip saintifik untuk membuat dan mengekalkan bekalan makanan yang sihat.

"Sama seperti masyarakat telah berkembang dari masa ke masa, sistem makanan kita juga berkembang selama berabad-abad menjadi sistem global dengan ukuran dan kerumitan yang sangat besar. Komitmen para profesional sains dan teknologi makanan untuk memajukan sains makanan, memastikan bekalan makanan yang selamat dan berlimpah, dan memberi sumbangan kepada orang yang lebih sihat di mana-mana adalah penting bagi evolusi itu. Para saintis dan teknolog makanan adalah pengamal serba boleh, interdisipliner, dan kolaborasi dalam profesion di persimpangan perkembangan sains dan teknologi. Oleh kerana sistem makanan telah berubah secara drastik, dari yang berpusat di sekitar pengeluaran makanan keluarga di ladang individu dan pemeliharaan makanan ke sistem moden pada masa kini, kebanyakan orang tidak terhubung dengan makanan mereka dan juga tidak terbiasa dengan pengeluaran pertanian dan pembuatan makanan yang dirancang untuk makanan yang lebih baik keselamatan dan kualiti. "

"Memberi makan kepada dunia hari ini dan esok: Kepentingan Sains dan Teknologi Makanan" John D. Foloros, Rosetta Newsome, William Fisher dari Ulasan Komprehensif dalam Sains Makanan dan Keselamatan Makanan 2010

Sains Makanan telah memberi kita

  • makanan sejuk beku
  • makanan dalam tin
  • makanan gelombang mikro
  • susu yang menyimpan
  • makanan ringan
  • makanan baru yang berkhasiat
  • makanan tradisional yang lebih senang disediakan
  • di atas semua, VARIETY dalam diet kita.

Saintis Makanan membantu memberikan karunia ini dengan belajar menerapkan pelbagai pengetahuan saintifik untuk mengekalkan bekalan makanan yang berkualiti tinggi dan berlimpah. Sains Makanan membolehkan kita memanfaatkan sumber makanan dengan sebaik mungkin dan mengurangkan sisa.

Sebilangan besar bahan makanan berasal dari biologi. Bagaimana mereka bertindak dalam penuaian, pemprosesan, pengedaran, penyimpanan dan penyediaan adalah masalah yang kompleks. Kesedaran sepenuhnya tentang semua aspek penting dalam masalah ini memerlukan latihan yang luas.

Untuk menjadi Saintis Makanan dan membantu menangani bekalan makanan di dunia untuk keuntungan maksimum, anda memerlukan sedikit pengetahuan

  • Kimia
  • Mikrobiologi
  • Biokimia
  • Kejuruteraan
  • Beberapa Statistik khusus.

Dengan latihan khas ini dalam Sains Makanan terapan, terdapat banyak kerjaya yang menarik dan produktif dengan pelbagai peluang pekerjaan untuk profesional terlatih, seperti

  • Pakar Pembangunan Produk
  • Saintis Sensori
  • Pakar Kawalan Kualiti
  • Wakil Jualan Teknikal

Penyataan Misi Jabatan Sains dan Teknologi Makanan UC Davis

Misi jabatan ini adalah untuk menghasilkan pengetahuan tentang makanan melalui penyelidikan, dan untuk menerapkan dan menyebarkan pengetahuan melalui pengajaran dan jangkauan, dengan tujuan untuk memastikan ketersediaan makanan yang selamat, berkhasiat dan menarik, dengan kesan minimum terhadap alam sekitar, untuk kebaikan semua orang.

UC Davis Jabatan Sains dan Teknologi Makanan
1136 Institut Robert Mondavi Bangunan Utara
595 Hilgard Lane
Davis, CA 95616


30.3.2. Kerosakan Metabolik pada Diabetes Berpunca daripada Insulinensi Relatif dan Kelebihan Glukagon

Kami sekarang mempertimbangkan diabetes mellitus, penyakit kompleks yang dicirikan oleh penggunaan bahan bakar yang sangat tidak normal: glukosa berlebihan dihasilkan oleh hati dan kurang digunakan oleh organ lain. Kejadian diabetes mellitus (biasanya disebut sebagai diabetes) adalah sekitar 5% daripada populasi. Sesungguhnya, diabetes adalah penyakit metabolik serius yang paling biasa di dunia yang dihidapi ratusan juta. Diabetes jenis I, atau diabetes mellitus yang bergantung kepada insulin (IDDM), disebabkan oleh pemusnahan autoimun sel-sel yang mengeluarkan & # x003b2 insulinsecrek di pankreas dan biasanya bermula sebelum usia 20. Istilah yang bergantung kepada insulin bermaksud individu memerlukan insulin untuk hidup. Sebilangan besar pesakit diabetes, sebaliknya, mempunyai tahap insulin normal atau lebih tinggi dalam darah mereka, tetapi mereka tidak bertindak balas terhadap hormon. Bentuk penyakit ini & # x02014 dikenali sebagai jenis II, atau diabetes mellitus yang tidak bergantung kepada insulin (NIDDM) & # x02014 biasanya muncul di kemudian hari daripada bentuk yang bergantung kepada insulin.

Diabetes-

Dinamakan kerana kencing yang berlebihan dalam penyakit ini. Aretaeus, seorang doktor Cappadocian pada abad ke-2, menulis: & # x0201cAbetes epitet telah ditugaskan untuk gangguan ini, seperti sesuatu seperti air oleh siphon. & # X0201d Dia secara persepsi mencirikan diabetes sebagai & # x0201dengan mencair- turunkan daging dan anggota badan ke dalam air kencing. & # x0201d

Dari bahasa Latin, bermaksud & # x0201cdigucuk dengan madu. & # X0201d Merujuk kepada kehadiran gula dalam air kencing pesakit yang menghidap penyakit ini.

Mellitus membezakan penyakit ini dengan diabetes insipidus, yang disebabkan oleh penyerapan semula air buah pinggang yang terganggu.

Pada diabetes jenis I, insulin tidak ada dan akibatnya glukagon hadir pada tahap yang lebih tinggi daripada biasa. Pada dasarnya, pesakit diabetes berada dalam mod kelaparan biokimia walaupun terdapat kepekatan glukosa darah yang tinggi. Kerana insulin kekurangan, kemasukan glukosa ke dalam sel terganggu. Hati menjadi tersekat dalam keadaan glukoneogenik dan ketogenik. Tahap glukagon yang berlebihan berbanding insulin menyebabkan penurunan jumlah F-2,6-BP di hati. Oleh itu, glikolisis dihambat dan glukoneogenesis dirangsang kerana kesan sebaliknya dari F-2,6-BP pada fosfofruktokinase dan fruktosa-1,6-bifosfatase (Bahagian 16.4 lihat juga Gambar 30.4 dan 30.6). Nisbah glukagon / insulin yang tinggi pada diabetes juga mendorong pemecahan glikogen. Oleh itu, jumlah glukosa yang berlebihan dihasilkan oleh hati dan dilepaskan ke dalam darah. Glukosa diekskresikan dalam air kencing (maka namanya mellitus) apabila kepekatannya dalam darah melebihi kapasiti reabsorptive tubulus ginjal. Air menyertai glukosa yang dikeluarkan, dan diabetes yang tidak dirawat pada fasa akut penyakit ini adalah lapar dan dahaga.

Kerana penggunaan karbohidrat terganggu, kekurangan insulin menyebabkan pemecahan lipid dan protein yang tidak terkawal. Sebilangan besar asetil CoA kemudian dihasilkan oleh & # x003b2-pengoksidaan. Bagaimanapun, sebilangan besar asetil CoA tidak dapat memasuki kitaran asid sitrik, kerana oksaloasetat tidak mencukupi untuk langkah pemeluwapan. Ingatlah bahawa mamalia dapat mensintesis oksaloasetat dari piruvat, produk glikolisis, tetapi bukan dari asetil CoA, mereka menghasilkan badan keton. Ciri diabetes yang mencolok adalah peralihan penggunaan bahan bakar dari karbohidrat menjadi glukosa lemak, lebih banyak daripada sebelumnya, ditolak. Dalam kepekatan tinggi, badan keton mengatasi keupayaan buah pinggang untuk mengekalkan keseimbangan asid-basa. Diabetes yang tidak dirawat boleh menjadi koma kerana tahap pH darah dan dehidrasi yang rendah.

Jenis II, atau tidak bergantung kepada insulin, diabetes menyumbang lebih dari 90% kes dan biasanya berkembang pada orang yang berumur pertengahan dan gemuk. Penyebab sebenar diabetes jenis II masih belum dapat dijelaskan, walaupun asas genetik nampaknya mungkin.


Ilmu di sebalik Suasana Buruk dan Apa Yang Anda Boleh Lakukan

Suasana yang buruk membuat kita semua tidak sehaluan sekarang dan lagi. Tetapi mengapa ia berlaku? Dan adakah yang boleh kita lakukan mengenainya? Mari kita lihat sains di sebalik suasana hati yang tidak baik, apa yang dilakukannya dalam sistem anda, dan apa yang boleh anda lakukan untuk memastikannya tidak diingini.

Suasana buruk dapat muncul disebabkan oleh pelbagai jenis peristiwa yang berbeza. Mungkin anda makan tengah hari sejam, anda mendapat layanan pelanggan yang buruk, atau perjalanan pagi anda menjadikan anda mod jalan kemarahan. Pencetus mood buruk sering bergantung pada orang dan tekanan dalam hidup mereka. Tetapi apa yang berlaku di dalam badan dan otak anda ketika anda berada dalam mood buruk sementara? Mari & # x27s melihat.

Reaksi Fizikal dan Mental Suasana Buruk

Sebilangan ahli psikologi percaya mood buruk berpunca daripada penurunan ego. Idea ini, yang diasaskan oleh penyelidik Roy Baumeister, menunjukkan ketika orang menggunakan kehendak mereka untuk mengelakkan godaan mereka mengalirkan sumber kognitif. Akibatnya, jika anda menahan sesuatu, katakanlah, makanan kerana anda sedang berdiet, atau berteriak kepada seseorang kerana mereka memberi anda layanan pelanggan yang buruk, itu akan menguras otak anda dan membuat anda kesal. Pada asasnya, semakin sukar anda mendorong fikiran untuk mengelakkan sesuatu, semakin besar kemungkinan anda merasa jengkel.

Anda boleh menganggapnya sebagai tahap tekanan. Apabila anda melewati batas, anda akan berada dalam suasana hati yang buruk dan itu mungkin muncul sebagai kemarahan, mudah marah, atau sinis. Semua ini menyebabkan tekanan darah anda turun naik. Mereka juga dapat meningkatkan tahap hormon stres kortisol anda. Ini menyebabkan anda menjadi lebih senang. Dalam beberapa kes, ia juga mencerminkan reaksi stres akut. Kami telah membincangkan bagaimana ini berfungsi sebelum ini, tetapi ia sering menimbulkan mood yang tidak baik kerana ia menaikkan tekanan darah, menghentikan pencernaan, dan meningkatkan degupan jantung anda. Sekiranya tidak ada yang lain, ia akan membuatkan anda berasa kering dan sedikit rehat setelah seharian.


Terokai peluang penyelidikan dalam pengembangan tekanan

Organisasi penyelidikan kontrak pengembangan strain mikrob untuk aplikasi protein alternatif

Walaupun syarikat ramuan yang berasal dari fermentasi yang baru muncul sering mengoptimumkan produktiviti ketegangan mereka sendiri, mungkin lebih berkesan bagi syarikat permulaan untuk melibatkan organisasi penyelidikan kontrak dengan kepakaran pengembangan ketegangan mikroba yang mendalam & hellip

Pemeriksaan mikrob yang komprehensif untuk mengenal pasti strain calon pengeluaran protein baru

Analisis sistematik, akses terbuka, komprehensif terhadap strain mikroba baru secara drastik dapat mengembangkan strain yang ada yang dapat bersaing dengan rasa, kecekapan, biaya, dan pemakanan.

Menghasilkan lemak seperti haiwan melalui penapaian mikroba

Fermentasi mikroba mungkin dapat membantu kita menghasilkan lipid yang serupa atau serupa dengan lemak haiwan - terutama lemak tepu, yang sangat jarang terjadi di kerajaan tumbuhan.


Rasa sentuhan membolehkan kita merasakan sensasi yang disebabkan oleh permukaan luaran objek (teksturnya). Tekstur makanan merujuk kepada kualiti yang dirasakan dengan lidah, gigi dan lelangit (juga dikenali sebagai 'rasa mulut') dan hujung jari. Tekstur inilah yang menjadikan agar-agar terasa licin dan berlendir atau biskut rangup dan kenyal.

Oleh kerana makanan dikunyah, makanan ini sentiasa dinilai. Gigi, lidah dan rahang memberi kekuatan pada mulut, mengira betapa mudahnya patah dan mengalir di mulut. Kita kemudian dapat memutuskan sama ada ia tebal, kenyal, rapuh, berair, licin, bersoda atau berduri.

Ketika pengguna memberikan permintaan yang lebih besar pada makanan yang mereka makan, teksturisasi makanan dipandang sebagai bidang tantangan dan peningkatan peluang untuk industri makanan, dan pengembangan tekstur baru yang inovatif dilihat sebagai bidang utama ketika mempertimbangkan perkembangan makanan baru.


Ilmu Luar Biasa Makanan Sampah Ketagihan

Pada malam 8 April 1999, barisan panjang Town Cars dan teksi berhenti ke ibu pejabat Minneapolis Pillsbury dan melepaskan 11 lelaki yang mengawal syarikat makanan terbesar di Amerika. Nestlé hadir, seperti Kraft dan Nabisco, General Mills dan Procter & amp Gamble, Coca-Cola dan Mars. Bersaing pada hari lain, presiden C.E.O dan presiden telah berkumpul untuk mengadakan pertemuan peribadi yang jarang berlaku. Dalam agenda adalah satu perkara: wabak kegemukan yang muncul dan bagaimana menanganinya. Walaupun suasananya mesra, lelaki yang berkumpul hampir tidak berteman. Perawakan mereka ditentukan oleh keterampilan mereka untuk saling bertarung dengan apa yang mereka sebut sebagai “bahagian perut” - jumlah ruang pencernaan yang dapat diraih oleh jenama mana-mana syarikat dari pertandingan.

James Behnke, seorang eksekutif berusia 55 tahun di Pillsbury, menyambut lelaki itu ketika mereka tiba. Dia cemas tetapi juga berharap akan rancangan yang dia dan beberapa eksekutif syarikat makanan lain telah merancang untuk terlibat dengan C.E.O mengenai masalah berat badan Amerika yang semakin meningkat. "Kami sangat prihatin, dan memang begitu, kegemukan menjadi masalah besar," ingat Behnke. "Orang-orang mulai berbicara tentang pajak gula, dan ada banyak tekanan pada perusahaan makanan." Membawa ketua syarikat di ruang yang sama untuk membicarakan apa-apa, apalagi masalah sensitif seperti ini, adalah perniagaan yang rumit, jadi Behnke dan rakan-rakan penganjurnya telah menuliskan pertemuan itu dengan teliti, mengucapkan mesej kepada perkara-perkara penting. "C.E.O dalam industri makanan biasanya bukan orang teknikal, dan mereka tidak selesa pergi ke perjumpaan di mana orang teknikal bercakap secara teknikal mengenai perkara teknikal," kata Behnke. "Mereka tidak mahu malu. Mereka tidak mahu membuat komitmen. Mereka mahu mengekalkan kesunyian dan autonomi mereka. "

Sebagai ahli kimia dengan berlatih dengan gelar doktor dalam sains makanan, Behnke menjadi ketua pegawai teknikal Pillsbury pada tahun 1979 dan berperanan dalam membuat barisan panjang produk hit, termasuk popcorn gelombang mikro. Dia sangat mengagumi Pillsbury tetapi dalam beberapa tahun kebelakangan ini dia merasa terganggu oleh gambar kanak-kanak gemuk yang menderita diabetes dan tanda-tanda awal tekanan darah tinggi dan penyakit jantung. Pada bulan-bulan menjelang C.E.O. bertemu, dia terlibat dalam perbincangan dengan sekumpulan pakar sains makanan yang melukis gambaran yang semakin suram mengenai kemampuan masyarakat untuk mengatasi formulasi industri - dari kawalan rapuh badan terhadap makan berlebihan hingga kekuatan tersembunyi beberapa makanan yang diproses untuk dibuat orang berasa lebih lapar. Sudah tiba masanya, dia dan segelintir orang lain merasa, untuk memberi amaran kepada C.E.O. bahawa syarikat mereka mungkin terlalu jauh dalam membuat dan memasarkan produk yang menimbulkan masalah kesihatan yang paling besar.

Perbincangan berlangsung di auditorium Pillsbury. Penceramah pertama ialah naib presiden Kraft bernama Michael Mudd. "Saya sangat menghargai peluang ini untuk bercakap dengan anda mengenai kegemukan kanak-kanak dan cabaran yang semakin meningkat yang ditimbulkannya untuk kita semua," Mudd memulakan. "Biar saya katakan pada awalnya, ini bukan topik yang mudah. Tidak ada jawapan yang mudah - untuk apa yang harus dilakukan oleh masyarakat kesihatan awam untuk mengendalikan masalah ini atau untuk apa yang harus dilakukan oleh industri kerana pihak lain berusaha untuk menanggungnya atas apa yang telah berlaku. Tetapi ini jelas: Bagi kita yang memandang serius masalah ini, sama ada mereka profesional kesihatan awam atau pakar kakitangan di syarikat anda sendiri, kami yakin bahawa satu perkara yang tidak boleh kita lakukan adalah apa-apa. "

Semasa dia bercakap, Mudd mengklik dek slaid - 114 keseluruhan - diproyeksikan di skrin besar di belakangnya. Angka-angka itu mengejutkan. Lebih daripada separuh orang dewasa Amerika kini dianggap berlebihan berat badan, dengan hampir satu perempat daripada populasi dewasa - 40 juta orang - secara klinikal ditakrifkan sebagai obes. Di kalangan kanak-kanak, kadarnya meningkat dua kali ganda sejak tahun 1980, dan jumlah kanak-kanak yang dianggap gemuk meningkat melebihi 12 juta. (Ini masih pada tahun 1999 kadar obesiti negara akan meningkat jauh lebih tinggi.) Pengilang makanan kini disalahkan atas masalah dari semua pihak - akademik, Pusat Kawalan dan Pencegahan Penyakit, Persatuan Jantung Amerika dan Persatuan Kanser Amerika. Setiausaha pertanian, di mana industri ini telah lama berkuasa, baru-baru ini menyebut kegemukan sebagai "wabak nasional."

Mudd kemudian melakukan perkara yang tidak dapat difikirkan. Dia membuat hubungan dengan perkara terakhir di dunia yang dikehendaki oleh C.E.O. dengan produk mereka: rokok. Mula-mula datang petikan dari profesor psikologi dan kesihatan awam Universiti Yale, Kelly Brownell, yang merupakan penyokong yang sangat vokal bahawa industri makanan olahan harus dilihat sebagai ancaman kesihatan awam: "Sebagai budaya, kami menjadi kecewa dengan syarikat tembakau yang mengiklankan kepada kanak-kanak, tetapi kami duduk diam sementara syarikat makanan melakukan perkara yang sama. Dan kita boleh membuat tuntutan bahawa tol yang ditanggung kesihatan awam oleh pesaing diet buruk yang diambil oleh tembakau. "

"Sekiranya ada orang di industri makanan yang pernah meragukan ada lereng licin di luar sana," kata Mudd, "Saya membayangkan mereka mulai mengalami sensasi gelongsor yang berbeda sekarang."

Mudd kemudian menyampaikan rencana yang dia dan yang lain telah merancang untuk mengatasi masalah kegemukan. Hanya dengan memastikan para eksekutif mengakui kesalahan kerana itu adalah langkah pertama yang penting, dia tahu, jadi rancangannya akan dimulakan dengan langkah kecil tetapi penting: industri harus menggunakan kepakaran para saintis - sendiri dan yang lain - untuk mendapatkan pemahaman yang lebih mendalam mengenai apa yang mendorong orang Amerika untuk makan berlebihan. Setelah ini tercapai, usaha itu dapat berlangsung di beberapa bidang. Yang pasti, tidak akan ada peranan untuk memainkan peranan makanan dan minuman dalam keadaan berlebihan. Mereka harus menggunakan penggunaan garam, gula dan lemak, mungkin dengan mengenakan had di seluruh industri. Tetapi bukan hanya masalah ketiga bahan ini, skema yang mereka gunakan untuk mengiklankan dan memasarkan produk mereka juga penting. Mudd mencadangkan mewujudkan "kod untuk membimbing aspek pemakanan pemasaran makanan, terutama kepada anak-anak."

"Kami mengatakan bahawa industri harus membuat usaha yang tulus untuk menjadi sebahagian daripada penyelesaian," Mudd menyimpulkan. "Dan dengan berbuat demikian, kita dapat membantu meredakan kritikan yang membangun terhadap kita."

Apa yang berlaku seterusnya tidak ditulis. Tetapi menurut tiga peserta, ketika Mudd berhenti bercakap, yang C.E.O. yang eksploitasi baru-baru ini di kedai runcit telah mengejutkan seluruh industri berdiri untuk bercakap. Namanya Stephen Sanger, dan dia juga orang - sebagai ketua Jeneral Mills - yang paling banyak kehilangan ketika berurusan dengan kegemukan. Di bawah kepimpinannya, Jeneral Mills tidak hanya melewati lorong bijirin tetapi bahagian lain dari kedai runcit. Jenama Yoplait syarikat telah mengubah yogurt sarapan tanpa gula tradisional menjadi pencuci mulut yang benar-benar benar. Sekarang ia mempunyai gula dua kali lebih banyak daripada hidangan sebagai sereal bertuah General Mills 'marshmallow Lucky Charms. Namun, kerana gambar yogurt yang baik sebagai makanan ringan yang sihat, penjualan Yoplait meningkat, dengan pendapatan tahunan mencapai $ 500 juta. Dengan keberanian yang berjaya, sayap pengembangan syarikat semakin kuat, mencipta variasi Yoplait yang terdapat dalam tabung yang boleh diperas - sesuai untuk anak-anak. Mereka memanggilnya Go-Gurt dan melancarkannya secara nasional pada minggu-minggu sebelum C.E.O. perjumpaan. (Menjelang akhir tahun, penjualannya akan mencecah $ 100 juta.)

Menurut sumber yang saya bicarakan, Sanger mulai dengan mengingatkan kumpulan itu bahawa pengguna "berubah-ubah." (Sanger enggan ditemu ramah.) Kadang-kadang mereka bimbang tentang gula, yang lain gemuk. General Mills, katanya, bertindak secara bertanggungjawab kepada orang ramai dan pemegang saham dengan menawarkan produk untuk memuaskan pemakanan dan pembeli lain yang berkepentingan, dari gula rendah hingga tambahan biji-bijian. Tetapi selalunya, katanya, orang membeli apa yang mereka suka, dan mereka menyukai apa yang rasanya enak. "Jangan bercakap dengan saya mengenai pemakanan," katanya dilaporkan, mengambil suara pengguna biasa. "Bercakap dengan saya tentang rasa, dan jika barang ini terasa lebih enak, jangan cuba untuk menjual barang yang tidak enak."

Untuk memberi reaksi terhadap pengkritik, kata Sanger, akan membahayakan kesucian resipi yang menjadikan produknya begitu berjaya. General Mills tidak akan mundur. Dia akan mendorong orang-orangnya maju, dan dia mendesak rekan-rekannya untuk melakukan hal yang sama. Tanggapan Sanger dengan berkesan mengakhiri pertemuan.

"Apa yang boleh saya katakan?" James Behnke memberitahu saya bertahun-tahun kemudian. "Tidak berjaya. Orang-orang ini tidak boleh menerima seperti yang kita sangka. ” Behnke memilih kata-katanya dengan sengaja. Dia mahu berlaku adil. "Sanger cuba mengatakan, 'Lihat, kita tidak akan bermain-main dengan barang kemas syarikat di sini dan mengubah formulasi kerana sekumpulan lelaki berbaju putih bimbang tentang kegemukan.'"

Pertemuan itu luar biasa, pertama, kerana pengakuan bersalah orang dalam. Tetapi saya juga kagum dengan betapa prihatinnya penganjur tempat duduk. Hari ini, satu daripada tiga orang dewasa dianggap obes secara klinikal, bersama dengan satu dari lima kanak-kanak, dan 24 juta orang Amerika menderita diabetes jenis 2, sering disebabkan oleh diet yang buruk, dengan 79 juta orang lagi menderita pra-diabetes. Bahkan gout, bentuk artritis yang menyakitkan yang pernah dikenali sebagai "penyakit orang kaya" kerana kaitannya dengan kekenyangan, kini menimpa lapan juta orang Amerika.

Orang ramai dan syarikat makanan telah mengetahui selama beberapa dekad sekarang - atau paling tidak sejak pertemuan ini - bahawa makanan bergula, masin, berlemak tidak baik untuk kita dalam kuantiti yang kita makan. Oleh itu mengapa bilangan diabetes dan obesiti dan hipertensi masih tidak terkawal? Bukan hanya masalah kemahuan yang lemah dari pihak pengguna dan sikap memberi-kepada-orang-apa-yang-mereka mahukan dari pihak pengeluar makanan. Apa yang saya dapati, selama empat tahun penyelidikan dan pelaporan, adalah usaha yang disedari - berlangsung di makmal dan perjumpaan pemasaran dan lorong kedai runcit - untuk membuat orang terpikat dengan makanan yang mudah dan murah. Saya bercakap dengan lebih daripada 300 orang di atau sebelumnya bekerja di industri makanan olahan, dari saintis hingga pemasar hingga C.E.O. Ada yang suka memberi maklumat, sementara yang lain bercakap dengan berat hati ketika disajikan dengan beribu-ribu halaman memo rahsia yang saya perolehi dari dalam operasi industri makanan. Yang berikut adalah serangkaian kajian kes kecil segelintir watak yang ketika itu, dan perspektif sekarang, menjelaskan bagaimana makanan itu dibuat dan dijual kepada orang-orang yang, walaupun tidak berdaya, sangat rentan terhadap intensiti syarikat-syarikat ini ' perumusan industri dan kempen penjualan.

I. 'Di Bidang Ini, Saya adalah Game Changer.'

John Lennon tidak dapat menemuinya di England, jadi dia mempunyai kes-kes yang dihantar dari New York untuk mendorong sesi "Bayangkan". The Beach Boys, ZZ Top dan Cher semua menetapkan dalam kontrak pengendara mereka bahawa ia akan diletakkan di bilik persalinan mereka ketika mereka melakukan lawatan. Hillary Clinton memintanya ketika dia melakukan perjalanan sebagai wanita pertama, dan selalunya suite hotelnya diisi dengan penuh perhatian.

Apa yang mereka semua mahukan adalah Dr Pepper, yang hingga tahun 2001 menduduki tempat ketiga yang selesa di lorong soda di belakang Coca-Cola dan Pepsi. Tetapi kemudian berlakunya banjir spin-off dari dua raksasa soda di rak - lemon dan limau, vanila dan kopi, raspberi dan oren, putih dan blues dan pembersih - apa yang terdapat dalam bahasa industri makanan dikenali sebagai "sambungan lanjutan," dan Dr Pepper mula kehilangan bahagian pasarannya.

Menanggapi tekanan ini, Cadbury Schweppes mencipta spinoff pertamanya, selain versi diet, dalam sejarah 115 tahun soda, soda merah terang dengan nama Pepper yang sangat tidak bernama: Red Fusion. "Jika kita ingin menegakkan kembali Dr Pepper kembali ke tingkat pertumbuhannya yang bersejarah, kita harus menambahkan kegembiraan," kata presiden syarikat itu, Jack Kilduff. Satu pasar yang sangat menjanjikan, Kilduff menunjukkan, adalah "komuniti Hispanik dan Afrika-Amerika yang berkembang pesat."

Tetapi pengguna membenci Red Fusion. "Dr Pepper adalah minuman kegemaran saya sepanjang masa, jadi saya ingin tahu tentang Red Fusion," seorang ibu dari tiga ibu California menulis di blog untuk memberi amaran kepada Peppers lain. "Ia menjijikkan. Gagging. Tidak akan lagi."

Tersentak dengan penolakan itu, Cadbury Schweppes pada tahun 2004 beralih kepada legenda industri makanan bernama Howard Moskowitz. Moskowitz, who studied mathematics and holds a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from Harvard, runs a consulting firm in White Plains, where for more than three decades he has “optimized” a variety of products for Campbell Soup, General Foods, Kraft and PepsiCo. “I’ve optimized soups,” Moskowitz told me. “I’ve optimized pizzas. I’ve optimized salad dressings and pickles. In this field, I’m a game changer.”

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In the process of product optimization, food engineers alter a litany of variables with the sole intent of finding the most perfect version (or versions) of a product. Ordinary consumers are paid to spend hours sitting in rooms where they touch, feel, sip, smell, swirl and taste whatever product is in question. Their opinions are dumped into a computer, and the data are sifted and sorted through a statistical method called conjoint analysis, which determines what features will be most attractive to consumers. Moskowitz likes to imagine that his computer is divided into silos, in which each of the attributes is stacked. But it’s not simply a matter of comparing Color 23 with Color 24. In the most complicated projects, Color 23 must be combined with Syrup 11 and Packaging 6, and on and on, in seemingly infinite combinations. Even for jobs in which the only concern is taste and the variables are limited to the ingredients, endless charts and graphs will come spewing out of Moskowitz’s computer. “The mathematical model maps out the ingredients to the sensory perceptions these ingredients create,” he told me, “so I can just dial a new product. This is the engineering approach.”

Moskowitz’s work on Prego spaghetti sauce was memorialized in a 2004 presentation by the author Malcolm Gladwell at the TED conference in Monterey, Calif.: “After . . . months and months, he had a mountain of data about how the American people feel about spaghetti sauce. . . . And sure enough, if you sit down and you analyze all this data on spaghetti sauce, you realize that all Americans fall into one of three groups. There are people who like their spaghetti sauce plain. There are people who like their spaghetti sauce spicy. And there are people who like it extra-chunky. And of those three facts, the third one was the most significant, because at the time, in the early 1980s, if you went to a supermarket, you would not find extra-chunky spaghetti sauce. And Prego turned to Howard, and they said, ‘Are you telling me that one-third of Americans crave extra-chunky spaghetti sauce, and yet no one is servicing their needs?’ And he said, ‘Yes.’ And Prego then went back and completely reformulated their spaghetti sauce and came out with a line of extra-chunky that immediately and completely took over the spaghetti-sauce business in this country. . . . That is Howard’s gift to the American people. . . . He fundamentally changed the way the food industry thinks about making you happy.”

Baiklah, ya dan tidak. One thing Gladwell didn’t mention is that the food industry already knew some things about making people happy — and it started with sugar. Many of the Prego sauces — whether cheesy, chunky or light — have one feature in common: The largest ingredient, after tomatoes, is sugar. A mere half-cup of Prego Traditional, for instance, has the equivalent of more than two teaspoons of sugar, as much as two-plus Oreo cookies. It also delivers one-third of the sodium recommended for a majority of American adults for an entire day. In making these sauces, Campbell supplied the ingredients, including the salt, sugar and, for some versions, fat, while Moskowitz supplied the optimization. “More is not necessarily better,” Moskowitz wrote in his own account of the Prego project. “As the sensory intensity (say, of sweetness) increases, consumers first say that they like the product more, but eventually, with a middle level of sweetness, consumers like the product the most (this is their optimum, or ‘bliss,’ point).”

I first met Moskowitz on a crisp day in the spring of 2010 at the Harvard Club in Midtown Manhattan. As we talked, he made clear that while he has worked on numerous projects aimed at creating more healthful foods and insists the industry could be doing far more to curb obesity, he had no qualms about his own pioneering work on discovering what industry insiders now regularly refer to as “the bliss point” or any of the other systems that helped food companies create the greatest amount of crave. “There’s no moral issue for me,” he said. “I did the best science I could. I was struggling to survive and didn’t have the luxury of being a moral creature. As a researcher, I was ahead of my time.”

Moskowitz’s path to mastering the bliss point began in earnest not at Harvard but a few months after graduation, 16 miles from Cambridge, in the town of Natick, where the U.S. Army hired him to work in its research labs. The military has long been in a peculiar bind when it comes to food: how to get soldiers to eat more rations when they are in the field. They know that over time, soldiers would gradually find their meals-ready-to-eat so boring that they would toss them away, half-eaten, and not get all the calories they needed. But what was causing this M.R.E.-fatigue was a mystery. “So I started asking soldiers how frequently they would like to eat this or that, trying to figure out which products they would find boring,” Moskowitz said. The answers he got were inconsistent. “They liked flavorful foods like turkey tetrazzini, but only at first they quickly grew tired of them. On the other hand, mundane foods like white bread would never get them too excited, but they could eat lots and lots of it without feeling they’d had enough.”

This contradiction is known as “sensory-specific satiety.” In lay terms, it is the tendency for big, distinct flavors to overwhelm the brain, which responds by depressing your desire to have more. Sensory-specific satiety also became a guiding principle for the processed-food industry. The biggest hits — be they Coca-Cola or Doritos — owe their success to complex formulas that pique the taste buds enough to be alluring but don’t have a distinct, overriding single flavor that tells the brain to stop eating.

Thirty-two years after he began experimenting with the bliss point, Moskowitz got the call from Cadbury Schweppes asking him to create a good line extension for Dr Pepper. I spent an afternoon in his White Plains offices as he and his vice president for research, Michele Reisner, walked me through the Dr Pepper campaign. Cadbury wanted its new flavor to have cherry and vanilla on top of the basic Dr Pepper taste. Thus, there were three main components to play with. A sweet cherry flavoring, a sweet vanilla flavoring and a sweet syrup known as “Dr Pepper flavoring.”

Finding the bliss point required the preparation of 61 subtly distinct formulas — 31 for the regular version and 30 for diet. The formulas were then subjected to 3,904 tastings organized in Los Angeles, Dallas, Chicago and Philadelphia. The Dr Pepper tasters began working through their samples, resting five minutes between each sip to restore their taste buds. After each sample, they gave numerically ranked answers to a set of questions: How much did they like it overall? How strong is the taste? How do they feel about the taste? How would they describe the quality of this product? How likely would they be to purchase this product?

Moskowitz’s data — compiled in a 135-page report for the soda maker — is tremendously fine-grained, showing how different people and groups of people feel about a strong vanilla taste versus weak, various aspects of aroma and the powerful sensory force that food scientists call “mouth feel.” This is the way a product interacts with the mouth, as defined more specifically by a host of related sensations, from dryness to gumminess to moisture release. These are terms more familiar to sommeliers, but the mouth feel of soda and many other food items, especially those high in fat, is second only to the bliss point in its ability to predict how much craving a product will induce.

In addition to taste, the consumers were also tested on their response to color, which proved to be highly sensitive. “When we increased the level of the Dr Pepper flavoring, it gets darker and liking goes off,” Reisner said. These preferences can also be cross-referenced by age, sex and race.

On Page 83 of the report, a thin blue line represents the amount of Dr Pepper flavoring needed to generate maximum appeal. The line is shaped like an upside-down U, just like the bliss-point curve that Moskowitz studied 30 years earlier in his Army lab. And at the top of the arc, there is not a single sweet spot but instead a sweet range, within which “bliss” was achievable. This meant that Cadbury could edge back on its key ingredient, the sugary Dr Pepper syrup, without falling out of the range and losing the bliss. Instead of using 2 milliliters of the flavoring, for instance, they could use 1.69 milliliters and achieve the same effect. The potential savings is merely a few percentage points, and it won’t mean much to individual consumers who are counting calories or grams of sugar. But for Dr Pepper, it adds up to colossal savings. “That looks like nothing,” Reisner said. “But it’s a lot of money. A lot of money. Millions.”

The soda that emerged from all of Moskowitz’s variations became known as Cherry Vanilla Dr Pepper, and it proved successful beyond anything Cadbury imagined. In 2008, Cadbury split off its soft-drinks business, which included Snapple and 7-Up. The Dr Pepper Snapple Group has since been valued in excess of $11 billion.

II. ‘Lunchtime Is All Yours’

Sometimes innovations within the food industry happen in the lab, with scientists dialing in specific ingredients to achieve the greatest allure. And sometimes, as in the case of Oscar Mayer’s bologna crisis, the innovation involves putting old products in new packages.

The 1980s were tough times for Oscar Mayer. Red-meat consumption fell more than 10 percent as fat became synonymous with cholesterol, clogged arteries, heart attacks and strokes. Anxiety set in at the company’s headquarters in Madison, Wis., where executives worried about their future and the pressure they faced from their new bosses at Philip Morris.

Bob Drane was the company’s vice president for new business strategy and development when Oscar Mayer tapped him to try to find some way to reposition bologna and other troubled meats that were declining in popularity and sales. I met Drane at his home in Madison and went through the records he had kept on the birth of what would become much more than his solution to the company’s meat problem. In 1985, when Drane began working on the project, his orders were to “figure out how to contemporize what we’ve got.”

Drane’s first move was to try to zero in not on what Americans felt about processed meat but on what Americans felt about lunch. He organized focus-group sessions with the people most responsible for buying bologna — mothers — and as they talked, he realized the most pressing issue for them was time. Working moms strove to provide healthful food, of course, but they spoke with real passion and at length about the morning crush, that nightmarish dash to get breakfast on the table and lunch packed and kids out the door. He summed up their remarks for me like this: “It’s awful. I am scrambling around. My kids are asking me for stuff. I’m trying to get myself ready to go to the office. I go to pack these lunches, and I don’t know what I’ve got.” What the moms revealed to him, Drane said, was “a gold mine of disappointments and problems.”

He assembled a team of about 15 people with varied skills, from design to food science to advertising, to create something completely new — a convenient prepackaged lunch that would have as its main building block the company’s sliced bologna and ham. They wanted to add bread, naturally, because who ate bologna without it? But this presented a problem: There was no way bread could stay fresh for the two months their product needed to sit in warehouses or in grocery coolers. Crackers, however, could — so they added a handful of cracker rounds to the package. Using cheese was the next obvious move, given its increased presence in processed foods. But what kind of cheese would work? Natural Cheddar, which they started off with, crumbled and didn’t slice very well, so they moved on to processed varieties, which could bend and be sliced and would last forever, or they could knock another two cents off per unit by using an even lesser product called “cheese food,” which had lower scores than processed cheese in taste tests. The cost dilemma was solved when Oscar Mayer merged with Kraft in 1989 and the company didn’t have to shop for cheese anymore it got all the processed cheese it wanted from its new sister company, and at cost.

Drane’s team moved into a nearby hotel, where they set out to find the right mix of components and container. They gathered around tables where bagfuls of meat, cheese, crackers and all sorts of wrapping material had been dumped, and they let their imaginations run. After snipping and taping their way through a host of failures, the model they fell back on was the American TV dinner — and after some brainstorming about names (Lunch Kits? Go-Packs? Fun Mealz?), Lunchables were born.

The trays flew off the grocery-store shelves. Sales hit a phenomenal $218 million in the first 12 months, more than anyone was prepared for. This only brought Drane his next crisis. The production costs were so high that they were losing money with each tray they produced. So Drane flew to New York, where he met with Philip Morris officials who promised to give him the money he needed to keep it going. “The hard thing is to figure out something that will sell,” he was told. “You’ll figure out how to get the cost right.” Projected to lose $6 million in 1991, the trays instead broke even the next year, they earned $8 million.

With production costs trimmed and profits coming in, the next question was how to expand the franchise, which they did by turning to one of the cardinal rules in processed food: When in doubt, add sugar. “Lunchables With Dessert is a logical extension,” an Oscar Mayer official reported to Philip Morris executives in early 1991. The “target” remained the same as it was for regular Lunchables — “busy mothers” and “working women,” ages 25 to 49 — and the “enhanced taste” would attract shoppers who had grown bored with the current trays. A year later, the dessert Lunchable morphed into the Fun Pack, which would come with a Snickers bar, a package of M&M’s or a Reese’s Peanut Butter Cup, as well as a sugary drink. The Lunchables team started by using Kool-Aid and cola and then Capri Sun after Philip Morris added that drink to its stable of brands.

Eventually, a line of the trays, appropriately called Maxed Out, was released that had as many as nine grams of saturated fat, or nearly an entire day’s recommended maximum for kids, with up to two-thirds of the max for sodium and 13 teaspoons of sugar.

When I asked Geoffrey Bible, former C.E.O. of Philip Morris, about this shift toward more salt, sugar and fat in meals for kids, he smiled and noted that even in its earliest incarnation, Lunchables was held up for criticism. “One article said something like, ‘If you take Lunchables apart, the most healthy item in it is the napkin.’ ”

Well, they did have a good bit of fat, I offered. “You bet,” he said. “Plus cookies.”

The prevailing attitude among the company’s food managers — through the 1990s, at least, before obesity became a more pressing concern — was one of supply and demand. “People could point to these things and say, ‘They’ve got too much sugar, they’ve got too much salt,’ ” Bible said. “Well, that’s what the consumer wants, and we’re not putting a gun to their head to eat it. That’s what they want. If we give them less, they’ll buy less, and the competitor will get our market. So you’re sort of trapped.” (Bible would later press Kraft to reconsider its reliance on salt, sugar and fat.)

When it came to Lunchables, they did try to add more healthful ingredients. Back at the start, Drane experimented with fresh carrots but quickly gave up on that, since fresh components didn’t work within the constraints of the processed-food system, which typically required weeks or months of transport and storage before the food arrived at the grocery store. Later, a low-fat version of the trays was developed, using meats and cheese and crackers that were formulated with less fat, but it tasted inferior, sold poorly and was quickly scrapped.

When I met with Kraft officials in 2011 to discuss their products and policies on nutrition, they had dropped the Maxed Out line and were trying to improve the nutritional profile of Lunchables through smaller, incremental changes that were less noticeable to consumers. Across the Lunchables line, they said they had reduced the salt, sugar and fat by about 10 percent, and new versions, featuring mandarin-orange and pineapple slices, were in development. These would be promoted as more healthful versions, with “fresh fruit,” but their list of ingredients — containing upward of 70 items, with sucrose, corn syrup, high-fructose corn syrup and fruit concentrate all in the same tray — have been met with intense criticism from outside the industry.

One of the company’s responses to criticism is that kids don’t eat the Lunchables every day — on top of which, when it came to trying to feed them more healthful foods, kids themselves were unreliable. When their parents packed fresh carrots, apples and water, they couldn’t be trusted to eat them. Once in school, they often trashed the healthful stuff in their brown bags to get right to the sweets.

This idea — that kids are in control — would become a key concept in the evolving marketing campaigns for the trays. In what would prove to be their greatest achievement of all, the Lunchables team would delve into adolescent psychology to discover that it wasn’t the food in the trays that excited the kids it was the feeling of power it brought to their lives. As Bob Eckert, then the C.E.O. of Kraft, put it in 1999: “Lunchables aren’t about lunch. It’s about kids being able to put together what they want to eat, anytime, anywhere.”

Kraft’s early Lunchables campaign targeted mothers. They might be too distracted by work to make a lunch, but they loved their kids enough to offer them this prepackaged gift. But as the focus swung toward kids, Saturday-morning cartoons started carrying an ad that offered a different message: “All day, you gotta do what they say,” the ads said. “But lunchtime is all yours.”

With this marketing strategy in place and pizza Lunchables — the crust in one compartment, the cheese, pepperoni and sauce in others — proving to be a runaway success, the entire world of fast food suddenly opened up for Kraft to pursue. They came out with a Mexican-themed Lunchables called Beef Taco Wraps a Mini Burgers Lunchables a Mini Hot Dog Lunchable, which also happened to provide a way for Oscar Mayer to sell its wieners. By 1999, pancakes — which included syrup, icing, Lifesavers candy and Tang, for a whopping 76 grams of sugar — and waffles were, for a time, part of the Lunchables franchise as well.

Annual sales kept climbing, past $500 million, past $800 million at last count, including sales in Britain, they were approaching the $1 billion mark. Lunchables was more than a hit it was now its own category. Eventually, more than 60 varieties of Lunchables and other brands of trays would show up in the grocery stores. In 2007, Kraft even tried a Lunchables Jr. for 3- to 5-year-olds.

In the trove of records that document the rise of the Lunchables and the sweeping change it brought to lunchtime habits, I came across a photograph of Bob Drane’s daughter, which he had slipped into the Lunchables presentation he showed to food developers. The picture was taken on Monica Drane’s wedding day in 1989, and she was standing outside the family’s home in Madison, a beautiful bride in a white wedding dress, holding one of the brand-new yellow trays.

During the course of reporting, I finally had a chance to ask her about it. Was she really that much of a fan? “There must have been some in the fridge,” she told me. “I probably just took one out before we went to the church. My mom had joked that it was really like their fourth child, my dad invested so much time and energy on it.”

Monica Drane had three of her own children by the time we spoke, ages 10, 14 and 17. “I don’t think my kids have ever eaten a Lunchable,” she told me. “They know they exist and that Grandpa Bob invented them. But we eat very healthfully.”

Drane himself paused only briefly when I asked him if, looking back, he was proud of creating the trays. “Lots of things are trade-offs,” he said. “And I do believe it’s easy to rationalize anything. In the end, I wish that the nutritional profile of the thing could have been better, but I don’t view the entire project as anything but a positive contribution to people’s lives.”

Today Bob Drane is still talking to kids about what they like to eat, but his approach has changed. He volunteers with a nonprofit organization that seeks to build better communications between school kids and their parents, and right in the mix of their problems, alongside the academic struggles, is childhood obesity. Drane has also prepared a précis on the food industry that he used with medical students at the University of Wisconsin. And while he does not name his Lunchables in this document, and cites numerous causes for the obesity epidemic, he holds the entire industry accountable. “What do University of Wisconsin M.B.A.’s learn about how to succeed in marketing?” his presentation to the med students asks. “Discover what consumers want to buy and give it to them with both barrels. Sell more, keep your job! How do marketers often translate these ‘rules’ into action on food? Our limbic brains love sugar, fat, salt. . . . So formulate products to deliver these. Perhaps add low-cost ingredients to boost profit margins. Then ‘supersize’ to sell more. . . . And advertise/promote to lock in ‘heavy users.’ Plenty of guilt to go around here!”

III. ‘It’s Called Vanishing Caloric Density.’

At a symposium for nutrition scientists in Los Angeles on Feb. 15, 1985, a professor of pharmacology from Helsinki named Heikki Karppanen told the remarkable story of Finland’s effort to address its salt habit. In the late 1970s, the Finns were consuming huge amounts of sodium, eating on average more than two teaspoons of salt a day. As a result, the country had developed significant issues with high blood pressure, and men in the eastern part of Finland had the highest rate of fatal cardiovascular disease in the world. Research showed that this plague was not just a quirk of genetics or a result of a sedentary lifestyle — it was also owing to processed foods. So when Finnish authorities moved to address the problem, they went right after the manufacturers. (The Finnish response worked. Every grocery item that was heavy in salt would come to be marked prominently with the warning “High Salt Content.” By 2007, Finland’s per capita consumption of salt had dropped by a third, and this shift — along with improved medical care — was accompanied by a 75 percent to 80 percent decline in the number of deaths from strokes and heart disease.)

Karppanen’s presentation was met with applause, but one man in the crowd seemed particularly intrigued by the presentation, and as Karppanen left the stage, the man intercepted him and asked if they could talk more over dinner. Their conversation later that night was not at all what Karppanen was expecting. His host did indeed have an interest in salt, but from quite a different vantage point: the man’s name was Robert I-San Lin, and from 1974 to 1982, he worked as the chief scientist for Frito-Lay, the nearly $3-billion-a-year manufacturer of Lay’s, Doritos, Cheetos and Fritos.

Lin’s time at Frito-Lay coincided with the first attacks by nutrition advocates on salty foods and the first calls for federal regulators to reclassify salt as a “risky” food additive, which could have subjected it to severe controls. No company took this threat more seriously — or more personally — than Frito-Lay, Lin explained to Karppanen over their dinner. Three years after he left Frito-Lay, he was still anguished over his inability to effectively change the company’s recipes and practices.

By chance, I ran across a letter that Lin sent to Karppanen three weeks after that dinner, buried in some files to which I had gained access. Attached to the letter was a memo written when Lin was at Frito-Lay, which detailed some of the company’s efforts in defending salt. I tracked Lin down in Irvine, Calif., where we spent several days going through the internal company memos, strategy papers and handwritten notes he had kept. The documents were evidence of the concern that Lin had for consumers and of the company’s intent on using science not to address the health concerns but to thwart them. While at Frito-Lay, Lin and other company scientists spoke openly about the country’s excessive consumption of sodium and the fact that, as Lin said to me on more than one occasion, “people get addicted to salt.”

Not much had changed by 1986, except Frito-Lay found itself on a rare cold streak. The company had introduced a series of high-profile products that failed miserably. Toppels, a cracker with cheese topping Stuffers, a shell with a variety of fillings Rumbles, a bite-size granola snack — they all came and went in a blink, and the company took a $52 million hit. Around that time, the marketing team was joined by Dwight Riskey, an expert on cravings who had been a fellow at the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia, where he was part of a team of scientists that found that people could beat their salt habits simply by refraining from salty foods long enough for their taste buds to return to a normal level of sensitivity. He had also done work on the bliss point, showing how a product’s allure is contextual, shaped partly by the other foods a person is eating, and that it changes as people age. This seemed to help explain why Frito-Lay was having so much trouble selling new snacks. The largest single block of customers, the baby boomers, had begun hitting middle age. According to the research, this suggested that their liking for salty snacks — both in the concentration of salt and how much they ate — would be tapering off. Along with the rest of the snack-food industry, Frito-Lay anticipated lower sales because of an aging population, and marketing plans were adjusted to focus even more intently on younger consumers.

Except that snack sales didn’t decline as everyone had projected, Frito-Lay’s doomed product launches notwithstanding. Poring over data one day in his home office, trying to understand just who was consuming all the snack food, Riskey realized that he and his colleagues had been misreading things all along. They had been measuring the snacking habits of different age groups and were seeing what they expected to see, that older consumers ate less than those in their 20s. But what they weren’t measuring, Riskey realized, is how those snacking habits of the boomers compared to diri mereka when they were in their 20s. When he called up a new set of sales data and performed what’s called a cohort study, following a single group over time, a far more encouraging picture — for Frito-Lay, anyway — emerged. The baby boomers were not eating fewer salty snacks as they aged. “In fact, as those people aged, their consumption of all those segments — the cookies, the crackers, the candy, the chips — was going up,” Riskey said. “They were not only eating what they ate when they were younger, they were eating more of it.” In fact, everyone in the country, on average, was eating more salty snacks than they used to. The rate of consumption was edging up about one-third of a pound every year, with the average intake of snacks like chips and cheese crackers pushing past 12 pounds a year.

Riskey had a theory about what caused this surge: Eating real meals had become a thing of the past. Baby boomers, especially, seemed to have greatly cut down on regular meals. They were skipping breakfast when they had early-morning meetings. They skipped lunch when they then needed to catch up on work because of those meetings. They skipped dinner when their kids stayed out late or grew up and moved out of the house. And when they skipped these meals, they replaced them with snacks. “We looked at this behavior, and said, ‘Oh, my gosh, people were skipping meals right and left,’ ” Riskey told me. “It was amazing.” This led to the next realization, that baby boomers did not represent “a category that is mature, with no growth. This is a category that has huge growth potential.”

The food technicians stopped worrying about inventing new products and instead embraced the industry’s most reliable method for getting consumers to buy more: the line extension. The classic Lay’s potato chips were joined by Salt & Vinegar, Salt & Pepper and Cheddar & Sour Cream. They put out Chili-Cheese-flavored Fritos, and Cheetos were transformed into 21 varieties. Frito-Lay had a formidable research complex near Dallas, where nearly 500 chemists, psychologists and technicians conducted research that cost up to $30 million a year, and the science corps focused intense amounts of resources on questions of crunch, mouth feel and aroma for each of these items. Their tools included a $40,000 device that simulated a chewing mouth to test and perfect the chips, discovering things like the perfect break point: people like a chip that snaps with about four pounds of pressure per square inch.

To get a better feel for their work, I called on Steven Witherly, a food scientist who wrote a fascinating guide for industry insiders titled, “Why Humans Like Junk Food.” I brought him two shopping bags filled with a variety of chips to taste. He zeroed right in on the Cheetos. “This,” Witherly said, “is one of the most marvelously constructed foods on the planet, in terms of pure pleasure.” He ticked off a dozen attributes of the Cheetos that make the brain say more. But the one he focused on most was the puff’s uncanny ability to melt in the mouth. “It’s called vanishing caloric density,” Witherly said. “If something melts down quickly, your brain thinks that there’s no calories in it . . . you can just keep eating it forever.”

As for their marketing troubles, in a March 2010 meeting, Frito-Lay executives hastened to tell their Wall Street investors that the 1.4 billion boomers worldwide weren’t being neglected they were redoubling their efforts to understand exactly what it was that boomers most wanted in a snack chip. Which was basically everything: great taste, maximum bliss but minimal guilt about health and more maturity than puffs. “They snack a lot,” Frito-Lay’s chief marketing officer, Ann Mukherjee, told the investors. “But what they’re looking for is very different. They’re looking for new experiences, real food experiences.” Frito-Lay acquired Stacy’s Pita Chip Company, which was started by a Massachusetts couple who made food-cart sandwiches and started serving pita chips to their customers in the mid-1990s. In Frito-Lay’s hands, the pita chips averaged 270 milligrams of sodium — nearly one-fifth a whole day’s recommended maximum for most American adults — and were a huge hit among boomers.

The Frito-Lay executives also spoke of the company’s ongoing pursuit of a “designer sodium,” which they hoped, in the near future, would take their sodium loads down by 40 percent. No need to worry about lost sales there, the company’s C.E.O., Al Carey, assured their investors. The boomers would see less salt as the green light to snack like never before.

There’s a paradox at work here. On the one hand, reduction of sodium in snack foods is commendable. On the other, these changes may well result in consumers eating more. “The big thing that will happen here is removing the barriers for boomers and giving them permission to snack,” Carey said. The prospects for lower-salt snacks were so amazing, he added, that the company had set its sights on using the designer salt to conquer the toughest market of all for snacks: schools. He cited, for example, the school-food initiative championed by Bill Clinton and the American Heart Association, which is seeking to improve the nutrition of school food by limiting its load of salt, sugar and fat. “Imagine this,” Carey said. “A potato chip that tastes great and qualifies for the Clinton-A.H.A. alliance for schools . . . . We think we have ways to do all of this on a potato chip, and imagine getting that product into schools, where children can have this product and grow up with it and feel good about eating it.”

Carey’s quote reminded me of something I read in the early stages of my reporting, a 24-page report prepared for Frito-Lay in 1957 by a psychologist named Ernest Dichter. The company’s chips, he wrote, were not selling as well as they could for one simple reason: “While people like and enjoy potato chips, they feel guilty about liking them. . . . Unconsciously, people expect to be punished for ‘letting themselves go’ and enjoying them.” Dichter listed seven “fears and resistances” to the chips: “You can’t stop eating them they’re fattening they’re not good for you they’re greasy and messy to eat they’re too expensive it’s hard to store the leftovers and they’re bad for children.” He spent the rest of his memo laying out his prescriptions, which in time would become widely used not just by Frito-Lay but also by the entire industry. Dichter suggested that Frito-Lay avoid using the word “fried” in referring to its chips and adopt instead the more healthful-sounding term “toasted.” To counteract the “fear of letting oneself go,” he suggested repacking the chips into smaller bags. “The more-anxious consumers, the ones who have the deepest fears about their capacity to control their appetite, will tend to sense the function of the new pack and select it,” he said.

Dichter advised Frito-Lay to move its chips out of the realm of between-meals snacking and turn them into an ever-present item in the American diet. “The increased use of potato chips and other Lay’s products as a part of the regular fare served by restaurants and sandwich bars should be encouraged in a concentrated way,” Dichter said, citing a string of examples: “potato chips with soup, with fruit or vegetable juice appetizers potato chips served as a vegetable on the main dish potato chips with salad potato chips with egg dishes for breakfast potato chips with sandwich orders.”

In 2011, The New England Journal of Medicine published a study that shed new light on America’s weight gain. The subjects — 120,877 women and men — were all professionals in the health field, and were likely to be more conscious about nutrition, so the findings might well understate the overall trend. Using data back to 1986, the researchers monitored everything the participants ate, as well as their physical activity and smoking. They found that every four years, the participants exercised less, watched TV more and gained an average of 3.35 pounds. The researchers parsed the data by the caloric content of the foods being eaten, and found the top contributors to weight gain included red meat and processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages and potatoes, including mashed and French fries. But the largest weight-inducing food was the potato chip. The coating of salt, the fat content that rewards the brain with instant feelings of pleasure, the sugar that exists not as an additive but in the starch of the potato itself — all of this combines to make it the perfect addictive food. “The starch is readily absorbed,” Eric Rimm, an associate professor of epidemiology and nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health and one of the study’s authors, told me. “More quickly even than a similar amount of sugar. The starch, in turn, causes the glucose levels in the blood to spike” — which can result in a craving for more.

If Americans snacked only occasionally, and in small amounts, this would not present the enormous problem that it does. But because so much money and effort has been invested over decades in engineering and then relentlessly selling these products, the effects are seemingly impossible to unwind. More than 30 years have passed since Robert Lin first tangled with Frito-Lay on the imperative of the company to deal with the formulation of its snacks, but as we sat at his dining-room table, sifting through his records, the feelings of regret still played on his face. In his view, three decades had been lost, time that he and a lot of other smart scientists could have spent searching for ways to ease the addiction to salt, sugar and fat. “I couldn’t do much about it,” he told me. “I feel so sorry for the public.”

IV. ‘These People Need a Lot of Things, but They Don’t Need a Coke.’

The growing attention Americans are paying to what they put into their mouths has touched off a new scramble by the processed-food companies to address health concerns. Pressed by the Obama administration and consumers, Kraft, Nestlé, Pepsi, Campbell and General Mills, among others, have begun to trim the loads of salt, sugar and fat in many products. And with consumer advocates pushing for more government intervention, Coca-Cola made headlines in January by releasing ads that promoted its bottled water and low-calorie drinks as a way to counter obesity. Predictably, the ads drew a new volley of scorn from critics who pointed to the company’s continuing drive to sell sugary Coke.

One of the other executives I spoke with at length was Jeffrey Dunn, who, in 2001, at age 44, was directing more than half of Coca-Cola’s $20 billion in annual sales as president and chief operating officer in both North and South America. In an effort to control as much market share as possible, Coke extended its aggressive marketing to especially poor or vulnerable areas of the U.S., like New Orleans — where people were drinking twice as much Coke as the national average — or Rome, Ga., where the per capita intake was nearly three Cokes a day. In Coke’s headquarters in Atlanta, the biggest consumers were referred to as “heavy users.” “The other model we use was called ‘drinks and drinkers,’ ” Dunn said. “How many drinkers do I have? And how many drinks do they drink? If you lost one of those heavy users, if somebody just decided to stop drinking Coke, how many drinkers would you have to get, at low velocity, to make up for that heavy user? The answer is a lot. It’s more efficient to get my existing users to drink more.”

One of Dunn’s lieutenants, Todd Putman, who worked at Coca-Cola from 1997 to 2001, said the goal became much larger than merely beating the rival brands Coca-Cola strove to outsell every other thing people drank, including milk and water. The marketing division’s efforts boiled down to one question, Putman said: “How can we drive more ounces into more bodies more often?” (In response to Putman’s remarks, Coke said its goals have changed and that it now focuses on providing consumers with more low- or no-calorie products.)

In his capacity, Dunn was making frequent trips to Brazil, where the company had recently begun a push to increase consumption of Coke among the many Brazilians living in favelas. The company’s strategy was to repackage Coke into smaller, more affordable 6.7-ounce bottles, just 20 cents each. Coke was not alone in seeing Brazil as a potential boon Nestlé began deploying battalions of women to travel poor neighborhoods, hawking American-style processed foods door to door. But Coke was Dunn’s concern, and on one trip, as he walked through one of the impoverished areas, he had an epiphany. “A voice in my head says, ‘These people need a lot of things, but they don’t need a Coke.’ I almost threw up.”

Dunn returned to Atlanta, determined to make some changes. He didn’t want to abandon the soda business, but he did want to try to steer the company into a more healthful mode, and one of the things he pushed for was to stop marketing Coke in public schools. The independent companies that bottled Coke viewed his plans as reactionary. A director of one bottler wrote a letter to Coke’s chief executive and board asking for Dunn’s head. “He said what I had done was the worst thing he had seen in 50 years in the business,” Dunn said. “Just to placate these crazy leftist school districts who were trying to keep people from having their Coke. He said I was an embarrassment to the company, and I should be fired.” In February 2004, he was.

Dunn told me that talking about Coke’s business today was by no means easy and, because he continues to work in the food business, not without risk. “You really don’t want them mad at you,” he said. “And I don’t mean that, like, I’m going to end up at the bottom of the bay. But they don’t have a sense of humor when it comes to this stuff. They’re a very, very aggressive company.”

When I met with Dunn, he told me not just about his years at Coke but also about his new marketing venture. In April 2010, he met with three executives from Madison Dearborn Partners, a private-equity firm based in Chicago with a wide-ranging portfolio of investments. They recently hired Dunn to run one of their newest acquisitions — a food producer in the San Joaquin Valley. As they sat in the hotel’s meeting room, the men listened to Dunn’s marketing pitch. He talked about giving the product a personality that was bold and irreverent, conveying the idea that this was the ultimate snack food. Dia menjelaskan secara terperinci mengenai bagaimana dia akan mensasarkan segmen khas dari 146 juta orang Amerika yang merupakan snek biasa - ibu, anak, profesional muda - orang, katanya, yang "menjaga ritual makanan ringan mereka segar dengan mencuba produk makanan baru ketika menangkapnya perhatian mereka. "

Dia menjelaskan bagaimana dia akan menggunakan penceritaan strategis dalam kempen iklan makanan ringan ini, menggunakan frasa kunci yang telah dikembangkan dengan banyak perhitungan: "Makan Em Seperti Makanan Sampah."

Selepas 45 minit, Dunn melepaskan slaid terakhir dan mengucapkan terima kasih kepada lelaki yang telah datang. Portofolio Madison mengandungi francais Burger King terbesar di dunia, rangkaian Ruth's Chris Steak House dan pembuat makanan olahan bernama AdvancePierre yang barisannya merangkumi Jamwich, produk kacang-dan-jeli yang beku, tanpa kerak dan disertakan dengan empat jenis gula.

Makanan ringan yang dicadangkan oleh Dunn untuk dijual: lobak merah. Lobak segar dan segar. Tanpa gula tambahan. Tiada sos krim atau celup. Tanpa garam. Cukup wortel bayi, dicuci, dimasukkan ke dalam beg, kemudian dijual ke lorong hasil kusam yang mematikan.

"Kami bertindak seperti makanan ringan, bukan sayur-sayuran," katanya kepada para pelabur. "Kami memanfaatkan peraturan makanan ringan untuk memacu percakapan wortel bayi. Kami bersikap pro-junk-food tetapi anti-junk-food. "

Para pelabur hanya memikirkan penjualan. Mereka telah membeli salah satu daripada dua pengeluar wortel bayi terbesar di negara ini, dan mereka telah menyewa Dunn untuk menjalankan keseluruhan operasi. Kini, setelah bermain, mereka berasa lega. Dunn telah mengetahui bahawa menggunakan strategi pemasaran industri akan berfungsi lebih baik daripada yang lain. Dia mengambil dari beg trik yang dia kuasai selama 20 tahun di Coca-Cola, di mana dia belajar salah satu peraturan yang paling penting dalam makanan olahan: Penjualan makanan sama pentingnya dengan makanan itu sendiri.

Kemudian, menerangkan tentang barisan kerjanya yang baru, Dunn memberitahu saya bahawa dia telah melakukan penebusan dosa selama bertahun-tahun di Coca-Cola. "Saya membayar hutang karma saya," katanya.


Sains Makanan Penn State adalah komuniti erat yang disatukan oleh minat makanan dan sains yang sama. Kami mahukan anda di sini.

Dalam Sains Makanan, anda akan mendapat perhatian peribadi yang anda perlukan untuk berkembang secara akademik dan cemerlang dalam karier anda. Fakulti kami melakukan penyelidikan kritikal di bidang-bidang mulai dari menjaga bekalan makanan kami hingga pembuatan wain - dan semua yang ada di antaranya. Tetapi memupuk bakat anda dan menghasilkan generasi saintis makanan bertaraf dunia yang seterusnya adalah keutamaan nombor satu.

Majikan ingin mengambil lulusan Penn State Food Science.

Syarikat-syarikat terbesar dan terbaik secara rutin memberitahu kami bahawa pelajar-pelajar kami bersedia untuk benar bekerja dalam memimpin industri ini. Tanpa mengira kenaikan ekonomi, orang harus makan. Industri makanan adalah bukti kemelesetan secara konsisten, dan saintis makanan selalu mendapat permintaan tinggi.

Sains Makanan adalah jurusan yang betul jika anda:

  • seorang pelajar sains yang mantap dan berminat dalam pengeluaran makanan dan pemakanan
  • mencari jalan akademik dengan potensi kerjaya yang sangat memberangsangkan
  • dalam mencari kelayakan praktikal dan boleh dipasarkan
  • berminat mengembangkan produk baru, mengawasi operasi pembuatan, atau memastikan kualiti dan keselamatan makanan
  • bercita-cita untuk bekerja untuk agensi kerajaan yang menguatkuasakan peraturan yang memastikan bekalan makanan kita selamat

Lihat Buletin Universiti untuk perincian mengenai keperluan program, rancangan akademik yang dicadangkan dan banyak lagi.


Tonton videonya: Main hungry shark #1 mod makan manusia dan ikan yang lain (Januari 2022).